Biology 114 MB questions

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viral DNA is replicated along with host DNA

In the lysogenic cycle _____.

transcription

Viral DNA makes mRNA by the process of _____.

single-stranded RNA

The genetic material of HIV consists of _____.

It catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template.

What is the function of reverse transcriptase?

host cell membrane

What is the source of a viral envelope?

provirus

Double-stranded viral DNA is incorporated into a host cell as a _____.

be cut by the same restriction enzyme

In order to insert a human gene into a plasmid, both must _____

DNA ligase

What enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments?

Lack of growth hormone

What defect causes pituitary dwarfism?

A method to produce many copies of a gene

What is genetic cloning?

False

True or false? The use of growth hormone isolated from cadavers was banned mainly because there were not enough cadavers to supply the hormone.

It makes complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA.

What best describes the function of reverse transcriptase?

Match the region of radioactivity on the filter with the corresponding plate.

Which of the following steps would be performed last when screening a cDNA library?

Put a cDNA encoding the protein into a plasmid with a bacterial promoter sequence.

How can large quantities of protein be produced from a bacterial colony containing the gene of interest?

True

True or false? The term "sticky ends" refers to the overhanging ends on DNA that are generated by restriction enzymes, which can base pair with any DNA molecules that contain complementary sticky ends.

sticky ends

The unpaired nucleotides produced by the action of restriction enzymes are referred to as _____.

Multigene families

identical or similar genes that have evolved by gene duplication.

Homeotic genes

encode transcription factors that control the expression of genes responsible for specific anatomical structures.

a cascade of transcription factors that regulate gene expression on a finer and finer scale.

Although quite different in structure, plants and animals share some basic similarities in their development, such as

Identify the sequences that encode genes.

After obtaining the raw sequence data of the human genome, what is the next step required to understand this sequence?

Eukaryotic genomes contain a large percentage of DNA that does not code for any product.

Why is annotating eukaryotic sequence data more difficult than annotating bacterial sequence data?

True

True or false? One method for determining whether a stretch of DNA is a coding region is to scan for homologs to sequences in closely related species.

A typical sequencing reaction can only read about 500 base pairs of sequence at a time.

Why must chromosomes be cut into small, 1000-base-pair fragments to be sequenced?

Finding start and stop codons is the most useful way to identify the coding regions in a human genomic sequence.

Which of the following statements about annotating a eukaryotic genome is false?

One of the noncoding regions of a gene

What is an intron?

True

True or false? A BAC library consists of many bacteria, each carrying a large fragment of a particular genome in the context of an artificial chromosome.

Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.

What about natural selection is true?

adaptation

Which term describes a trait that increases an individual's ability to survive in a particular environment?

Heritability

Which term describes the ability of a trait to be passed on to offspring?

A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.

Which of the following organisms could be produced by artificial selection?

Large hen, large rooster

Which pair of chickens should a farmer breed to produce larger chickens?

A and E

A farmer wishes to develop a strain of high-yield corn that is also resistant to drought. He has the following individuals from the current year's crop:

Individual A—Yield: 179 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual B—Yield: 220 bushels/acre; drought resistance: low
Individual C—Yield: 185 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium
Individual D—Yield: 140 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual E—Yield: 200 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium

Which 2 crosses would produce the highest corn yield with the highest resistance to drought?

Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction

Which of these lists contains the four postulates of natural selection?

Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population.

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection?

Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce.

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection?

No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host

Does the ability of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to infect a new host depend on its drug-resistant phenotype?

The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.

Which of the following statements describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment?

The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.

In the United States today, about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers, an insect pest of corn. Which of the following conditions would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn borer?

True

True or false? It would be difficult to assess whether the drug-susceptible or drug-resistant phenotype in a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was more fit in an environment without antibiotics.

flipper

The wing of a bat is homologous to the _____ of a whale.

Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.

Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?

Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.

The upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportions. However, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data?

South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe.

Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?

A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency.

Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patient's HIV population consists entirely of 3TC-resistant viruses. How can this result best be explained?

humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.

DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that

The wings of a bird and those of an insect

Which of the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology?

Activators

_____ bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions.

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