Psychology Modules 45-47

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71 terms · Psychology 2000 Domangue LSU

Personality

A person's unique and relatively stable behavior patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Example of Personality

The seven dwarves in Snow White.

Psychodynamic theory

personality/behavior is determined by unconscious psychological conflicts.

Sigmund Freud

neurologist to begin with, but then was a psychologist in Austria; founder of psychodynamic theory, conscious, preconscious, unconscious, and components of personality.

The conscious

whatever we are aware of at any given moment.

The preconscious

everything we know but not aware of at the moment.

The unconscious

things so anxiety-provoking they were removed from consciousness.

Id

contains basic impulses and urges, present at birth (totally unconscious).

Pleasure Principle

desire for immediate satisfaction and desires pleasure.

Superego

moral behavior learned from parents and culture (moral compass).

Idealistic Principle

act proper and ideal as defined by parents and culture.

Ego

mediates conflicts between the id and the superego (directs rational behavior).

Reality Principle

compromises between the id and superego (delays pleasure until appropriate).

Repression

unconsciously pushing threatening memories from conscious awareness.

Projection

unconsciously attributing one's own unacceptable feelings to another person.

Denial

discounting the existence of threatening situations.

Rationalization

attempting to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable.

Regression

revert to behavior that reduced anxiety earlier in development.

Reaction Formation

defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite of them.

Displacement

deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one.

Sublimation

converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions by symbolically expressing them.

Compensation

striving to make up for unconscious shortcoming feelings.

Psychosexual Stages

each stage has a part of the body that reduces anxiety when stimulated (an erogenous zone)

Fixation

unconscious preoccupation with the area of pleasure associated with that stage.

The Oral Stage

(Birth to 1 year) - the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict (weaning is psychosexual issue)

Oral Fixation

adults putting things in mouth.

The Anal Stage

(1 to 3 years) - the focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus (potty training is psychosexual issue).

Anal Expulsive Personality

disorderly, cruel, and messy.

Anal Retentive Personality

someone who is excessively neat, orderly, and stingy.

The Phallic Stage

(3 to 5 years) - the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area.

Oedipus Complex

boy has desires for mother and wants to eliminate his father (castration anxiety)

Electra Complex

girl has desires for father and wants to eliminate mother (penis envy)

Identification

child adopts behaviors and mannerisms of the same sex parent (development of superego)

The Latency Period

(6 years to puberty) - sexual impulses lie dormant

Genital Stage

(adolescence onward) - sexual impulses reappear in conscious shifts to the opposite sex for vast majority

Neo-Freudians

Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler.

Collective unconscious

Common ideas, images, and symbols we inherit from our ancestors

Archetypes

Universal symbolic representations

Karen Horney

First feminist psychologist; Personality develops in the context of social relationships

Alfred Adler

Said that people strive for superiority

Inferiority complex

adults who haven't overcome feelings of childhood inferiority.

Trait theory

identifies basic traits necessary to describe personality

The Big Five

Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

Cardinal

Single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities

Central

Five to ten major characteristics of an individual

Behaviorist approach (B.F. Skinner)

Collection of learned behavior patterns (reinforcements and punishment)

Observational learning (Albert Bandura)

View others' actions and observe consequences

Humanistic Perspective

By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud's negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.

Self-actualization

State of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, in own unique way.

Person-Centered Perspective

Carl Rogers said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

Rorschach Inkblot Test

A set of 10 inkblots and was designed by to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

Personal control

is the extent to when people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.

External locus control

is the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

Internal locus of control

is the perception that you control your own fate.

Example of the oral stage

infants stop crying when get gogo, always put stuff in their mouth, weaned off too early or too late.

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

Human perspective "leaders"

Positive psychology

the scientific stud of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

Example of pleasure principle

Date rape - Id out of control, takes what he/she wants

Empirically derived test

a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

Reciprocal Determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

Personality inventory

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

Example of unconditional positive regard

unconditional love for children.

Social-cognotive

perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

Free association

in psycho analysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

Secondary traits

things that are common to a certain culture.

Example of anal retentative

said they didn't want to use potty because it would make a mess.

Learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

Self-concept

is all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "who am I?"

False consensus effect

the tendency to over estimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

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