A person's unique and relatively stable behavior patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Example of Personality
The seven dwarves in Snow White.
personality/behavior is determined by unconscious psychological conflicts.
neurologist to begin with, but then was a psychologist in Austria; founder of psychodynamic theory, conscious, preconscious, unconscious, and components of personality.
whatever we are aware of at any given moment.
everything we know but not aware of at the moment.
things so anxiety-provoking they were removed from consciousness.
contains basic impulses and urges, present at birth (totally unconscious).
desire for immediate satisfaction and desires pleasure.
moral behavior learned from parents and culture (moral compass).
act proper and ideal as defined by parents and culture.
mediates conflicts between the id and the superego (directs rational behavior).
compromises between the id and superego (delays pleasure until appropriate).
unconsciously pushing threatening memories from conscious awareness.
unconsciously attributing one's own unacceptable feelings to another person.
discounting the existence of threatening situations.
attempting to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable.
revert to behavior that reduced anxiety earlier in development.
defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite of them.
deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one.
converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions by symbolically expressing them.
striving to make up for unconscious shortcoming feelings.
each stage has a part of the body that reduces anxiety when stimulated (an erogenous zone)
unconscious preoccupation with the area of pleasure associated with that stage.
The Oral Stage
(Birth to 1 year) - the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict (weaning is psychosexual issue)
adults putting things in mouth.
The Anal Stage
(1 to 3 years) - the focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus (potty training is psychosexual issue).
Anal Expulsive Personality
disorderly, cruel, and messy.
Anal Retentive Personality
someone who is excessively neat, orderly, and stingy.
The Phallic Stage
(3 to 5 years) - the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area.
boy has desires for mother and wants to eliminate his father (castration anxiety)
girl has desires for father and wants to eliminate mother (penis envy)
child adopts behaviors and mannerisms of the same sex parent (development of superego)
The Latency Period
(6 years to puberty) - sexual impulses lie dormant
(adolescence onward) - sexual impulses reappear in conscious shifts to the opposite sex for vast majority
Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler.
Common ideas, images, and symbols we inherit from our ancestors
Universal symbolic representations
First feminist psychologist; Personality develops in the context of social relationships
Said that people strive for superiority
adults who haven't overcome feelings of childhood inferiority.
identifies basic traits necessary to describe personality
The Big Five
Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities
Five to ten major characteristics of an individual
Behaviorist approach (B.F. Skinner)
Collection of learned behavior patterns (reinforcements and punishment)
Observational learning (Albert Bandura)
View others' actions and observe consequences
By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud's negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.
State of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, in own unique way.
Carl Rogers said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A set of 10 inkblots and was designed by to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
is the extent to when people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.
External locus control
is the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
Internal locus of control
is the perception that you control your own fate.
Example of the oral stage
infants stop crying when get gogo, always put stuff in their mouth, weaned off too early or too late.
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Human perspective "leaders"
the scientific stud of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Example of pleasure principle
Date rape - Id out of control, takes what he/she wants
Empirically derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
Example of unconditional positive regard
unconditional love for children.
perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
in psycho analysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
things that are common to a certain culture.
Example of anal retentative
said they didn't want to use potty because it would make a mess.
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
is all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "who am I?"
False consensus effect
the tendency to over estimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.