A person's unique and relatively stable behavior patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.
neurologist to begin with, but then was a psychologist in Austria; founder of psychodynamic theory, conscious, preconscious, unconscious, and components of personality.
converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions by symbolically expressing them.
each stage has a part of the body that reduces anxiety when stimulated (an erogenous zone)
The Oral Stage
(Birth to 1 year) - the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict (weaning is psychosexual issue)
The Anal Stage
(1 to 3 years) - the focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus (potty training is psychosexual issue).
child adopts behaviors and mannerisms of the same sex parent (development of superego)
(adolescence onward) - sexual impulses reappear in conscious shifts to the opposite sex for vast majority
First feminist psychologist; Personality develops in the context of social relationships
Behaviorist approach (B.F. Skinner)
Collection of learned behavior patterns (reinforcements and punishment)
By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud's negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.
State of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, in own unique way.
Carl Rogers said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A set of 10 inkblots and was designed by to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
is the extent to when people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.
External locus control
is the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
Example of the oral stage
infants stop crying when get gogo, always put stuff in their mouth, weaned off too early or too late.
the scientific stud of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Empirically derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
in psycho analysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
is all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "who am I?"