Has seen dramatic growth since the mid 1990s due to far-reaching economic reforms that have curtailed its bureaucracy and sold off money-losing, state-owned industries.
In Egypt, where the same word is used for bread and for life, why did the government need to import so much wheat and experience vast corruption in its market for flour?
The govt subsidized the production of bread, distorting its real cost and leading to overuse.
In a money-losing venture using foreign direct investment, who loses the money?
MNC (multi-national corporation)
What is IMF conditionality?
An agreement to loan IMF funds to a state in economic crisis on the condition that it adopts a structural adjustment program even if that program's provisions will be extremely unpopular with citizens.
What is the purpose of the WTO's Generalized System of Preferences?
To ensure that participation in world trade advances rather than impedes third world development.
The strategy that seeks to develop industries that can compete in specific niches in the world economy is known as...
How does the WTO trading regime sometimes work against poor states?
It hurts infant industries by forcing competition with more technologically advanced industries of developed states.
Which type of foreign assistance is generally the least efficient and most prone to impede rather than help economic development?
What do long-term trends in fertility and infant mortality rates in China and India say about the ability of the dominance and identity principles to lead individuals to take actions that are in society's interest?
Relying on the identity principle is a slower method of changing mass behavior than relying on dominance; however, relying on the identity principle ultimately can produce similar results while protecting democratic liberties.
What is the biggest disadvantage faced by UN development programs?
They are funded largely through voluntary contributions made by rich states, so the contributions can be abruptly cut off if the program displeases a donor govt.
What is the distinctive aspect of the Oxfam assistance model?
It relies on local communities to both determine the needs of their own people and carry out development projects.
Which of these represent India's niche in the globalized world economy?
The service and information sectors
Of the 30 states of the industrialized West that make up the OECD, which country commits the lowest percentage of its GNP to foreign assistance to the needy?
The United States
Which is true of urbanization?
The extent of urbanization in Africa is roughly the same as in China.
What is NOT another expression for the global South?
Formerly colonized countries
Which of the following represents the most politicized refugee problem of the past several decades?
Palestinians displaced in the 1948 and 1647 Arab-Israeli wars
The UN in 2000 adopted the Millennium Development Goals to reduce the effects of global poverty, and yet ________ children still die each year as a consequence of malnutrition.
What needs to occur for a society to put economic growth on a firm foundation?
The basic human needs of most of its population must be met.
Levels of immunization and secondary-school enrollment both roughly correlate with
A region's income level
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
Why hasn't the number of people lacking access to clean water and sanitation facilities decreased since 1990, despite the fact that poor states have made considerable strides in providing these services?
Between 1990 and 2008, incomes per person (adjusted for inflation, in today's dollars) in the global South as a whole
Nearly doubled, going from about $3,000 to about $5,500
Which of the following did UNICEF report in 2006 about progress in reducing child malnutrition?
Africa was not moving forward
Which of the following improvements in the area of public health has NOT occurred in the global South in recent decades?
The WHO has eradicated iodine deficiency, a condition that affected as many as 2 billion people worldwide, damaging the IQ of children and stunting growth.
What are agricultural goods produced for export to world markets known as?
Who are the main opponents of land reform?
What did Italian city-states of the Renaissance period rediscover, as described by Niccolò Machiavelli?
The rules of interstate power
In what area of the global South do women's literacy rates approach those of men?
How does international law and custom distinguish migrants from refugees?
Migration is considered voluntary, and states are not under any obligation to let such people enter from another state.
Are a major source of income for many poor countries, making up at least half of a state's total GDP in some cases
money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
What is the term used by the international community to describe people who are still in their home country, but who have been forced to leave their homes because of war or similar pressures?
Internally displaced persons
Decolonization began with...
colonial revolt in the United States
Dependency theory attributes underdevelopment in the global South to
economic relationships that prevent poor countries from accumulating enough capital to fund developmental projects that can create even surplus capital for future domestic investment
What is the most important class struggle in the world today, according to IR scholars who see the global system as a capitalist world economy?
The struggle between the periphery and the core
As exemplified by Angola's Cabinda province, an enclave economy...
depletes a state's natural resources while leaving its largest economy largely untouched.
The various problems that result when countries base their economic growth solely on natural resource exports are known as
the resource curse
Once in power, most revolutionary governments...
initially create radical foreign policy agendas, but eventually come to share the same interest as other states in promoting national sovereignty and territorial integrity
What development first made European imperialism possible?
oceangoing ships, in which a small crew could transport a sizable cargo over a long distance
In the "warring states" period of China, how did sophisticated states use warfare?
As an instrument of power politics
A sustainable natural environment is considered a(n)...
What makes global environmental politics particularly hard to manage?
the large number of actors
How did Britain solve its sheep-grazing "tragedy of the commons" problem?
Enclosure of the commons
Sustainable development refers to...
economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroy ecosystems so quickly that future economic growth is undermined.
What does the Commission on Sustainable Development do?
It monitors and publicizes state actions in order to assess compliance with the promises countries made at the 1992 Earth Summit.
If global temperatures rise by between 3 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit,
All of these are likely consequences if nothing is done about global warming.
Why are the costs of reducing the greenhouse effect high?
because the available solutions entail curbing economic growth or shifting it onto entirely new technological paths
What is the main UN-sponsored body that serves as a negotiating forum for issues related to global warming?
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Why has the ozone depletion problem been easier to address than global warming?
CFCs can be replaced with other chemicals at a relatively modest cost.
Like trade, which principle do environmental negotiations rely upon as the prime mover of agreements?
the reciprocity principle
What is the most important prominent cause of extinction?
Loss of habitat
Why are unilateral approaches to biodiversity issues problematic?
Because they disrupt free trade
Which of the following is true of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which was designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
There are binding penalties on 40 industrialized countries if they fail to reduce emissions as required by the treaty.
International markets to trade carbon emission credits
allow a heavily polluting industrial facility to purchase emission credits created by a facility in another state that has reduced its emissions beyond what is required.
creates a collective goods problem in many cases, but one that is not often global in scale and that usually can be addressed within states or at the regional level
What obstacle makes it difficult to fully utilize the Caspian Sea region as a new and largely untapped oil source?
Violent conflicts make export pipeline routes particularly difficult to build and operate.
What was the cause of the 1973 oil shock?
oil-producing Arab states wanting to punish the United States for supporting Israel
is considered by the WHO to be an international issue because the trade in tobacco is increasing the number of poor smokers, especially women.
How did the U.S. government and NGOs help Guatemala in exchange for expanded rain forest conservation programs?
What damage, caused by acid rain, brought about a large multistate agreement to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions?
damage to forests in Europe
By the end of a demographic transition, what has happened to the population?
the average age is much higher than before
When a society encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception, it is pursuing ________ policies.
The infant mortality rate is an excellent indicator of overall health because it reflects a population's access to...
shelter, nutrition, health care and water.
What is NOT an effective prevention measure against AIDS?
the AIDS vaccine
What is NOT true of energy consumption rates?
Due to inefficiency, the average person in China consumes about 2 times as much energy as the typical person in North America.
A transnational or nonstate international actor is supranational if it is able to
subsume a number of states and their functions within a larger whole.
Which of the following networks is NOT one that is beamed across foreign borders by the U.S. government with the goal of influencing foreign audiences?
What would be the ultimate expression of international integration?
a single world government
The digital divide between poor and rich societies
is still growing despite the impressive addition of mobile phone and Internet capabilities in poor countries.
The growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders is known as
Why did the proposed EU constitution fail to become the governing document of the EU in 2005?
The constitution's approval process was halted after the document was rejected by voters in referenda in France and the Netherlands.
What is it called when participating states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside the area?
a customs union
Which of the following is NOT a structural component of the European Union?
the Commission of Eurocrats
Which of the following regions of the world has an international governmental organization dedicated to regional cooperation?
Each of these regions has an IGO that has chalked up some successes in promoting coordination among member states.
Which of these was NOT an outcome resulting from the signing of the Maastricht Treaty?
the successful mediation of the war in the former Yugoslavia
Which element(s) of integration has/have been the most problematic in the European Union?
political and military integration
According to the Maastricht Treaty, which of these is a requirement for a state to join the unified currency of the euro?
The new members who joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 were, by Western European standards,
Why is the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe considered the only truly universal intergovernmental organization in Europe?
because all European states are members
Which Muslim-majority country has taken strong steps in recent years to improve human rights in the hope of being admitted to the EU?
How has China blocked Internet use?
by channeling all access to the Internet through a few state-controlled service providers
The information revolution greatly increases ________ in international relations.
Who primarily makes up the emerging global culture?
white Europeans and their descendents in rich areas of the world
What was the founding principle of the Common Agricultural Policy, a key aspect of the development of a European common market?
A subsidy extended to farmers in any member state should be extended to farmers in all EU countries.
What was the first area of European integration after World War II?
the merger of French and German steel and coal industries into a single framework
What is the "qualified majority" requirement for a policy to be approved by the Council of the European Union (the EU's main decision-making body)?
At least 55 percent of EU member states, representing 65 percent of EU citizens, must vote in favor of it.
What is a primary difference between the European Court of Justice and the World Court?
The European Court of Justice can overrule national laws.
What arguably is the largest financial overhaul ever attempted in history?
the creation of a European currency
The Single European Act...
set a target date for the creation of a true common market in Europe.
Which of the following accurately describes the integration of global financial markets?
These markets now are as integrated as they have ever been
Which of the following is true of the relative values of currencies?
They are arbitrary at any point in time.
Today, what unit or units of exchange serve(s) as the basis of the international economy?
What is today's equivalent of the stockpiles of gold of centuries past?
reserves of hard currency
What was NOT a result of China's pegging the yuan's value to that of the U.S. dollar?
The value of the U.S. dollar dropped nearly one third against the yuan in 2002 and again decreased sharply in 2010.
The value of a state's currency tends to rise and fall relative to other states because of
changes in the long-term supply and demand for the currency.
What happens domestically when too much money is printed?
It creates inflation.
What financial condition did Zimbabwe experience in 2009, causing its currency to rapidly lose most of its value?
What is the main way the Federal Reserve exercises its power?
by setting the discount rate
If the price of the U.S. dollar fell too much relative to other important currencies, and other governments coordinated their efforts to correct this through the purchase of dollars, they would be participating in a
managed float system.
What was the World Bank originally set up to do?
to create a source of loans to reconstruct the Western European economies after World War II
The purpose of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is to
oversee the managed float system, coordinate int'l currency exchange, coordinate the balance of int'l payments and coordinate national accounts
What replaced gold as the world standard for currency exchange?
the Special Drawing Right
Why does the United States have the single largest vote in the IMF and the World Bank?
because the IMF and the World Bank use a weighted voting system where each state has a vote equal to its quota, which is based on the size and strength of a state's economy
Which of these is NOT a type of international transaction that goes into the balance of payments?
trade deficits or surpluses
For mercantilists, national debt represents...
a loss of power.
The rate at which currencies are exchanged between two or more states
can be a source of conflict if one state adopts policies to keep its currency lower in value relative to other state currencies.
Which the following statements is true of the economic performance of the United States?
Other than the underlying systemic problems in the affected countries, what action kicked off the 1997 Asian financial crisis?
Currency speculators began selling off the currencies of Southeast Asian countries.
Who carries out most currency exchange and other international economic transactions?
private firms and individuals
In the 1990s, Russia and Eastern Europe
faced daunting challenges converting to capitalism, and they initially plunged into a deep depression.
Liberal economists believe that investments should be made solely
on economic grounds.
are independent and increasingly powerful actors in the international system.
Sometimes, a state will break its agreements with MNCs and seize ownership of their facilities and assets in an act known as
What does pegging currency to the dollar, as Argentina did in the 1990s, mean to a state?
a loss of sovereignty over its own monetary policy
What accurately describes international norms?
When institutionalized through international organizations, norms become habitual over time and gain legitimacy
Presently, which two states provide the largest contributions of military troops to UN peacekeeping missions?
Pakistan and Bangladesh
Which of these institutions is a nongovernmental organization?
the International Committee of the Red Cross
What is NOT a principle built into the UN Charter?
All member states must submit to the will of the UN.
For realists, which of the following ideas explains why many accepted norms are most shaped by the powerful states in the system, as in the case of the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003?
The dominance principle
Why was the UN founded?
to increase international order and the rule of law in order to prevent another world war
At what point in history did all the great powers finally agree on measures regarding international security in the UN?
after the Cold War
What three "pillars" are considered by the UN to be mutually dependent on one another?
security, economic development, and human rights
Why is it that the UN cannot stop aggression by (or supported by) a great power?
Any one of the great powers can veto such an action.
Which of the following statements about the Security Council is accurate?
The Security Council's power is limited in part because the Council's decisions depend entirely on the interests of its member states.
What statements accurately describes treaties?
States violate the terms of ratified treaties they have signed only if the matter is very important or the penalties for such are very small.
What is the single greatest constraint on the use of peacekeeping forces?
the lack of funds
When are peacekeeping forces usually deployed?
once a cease-fire has been arranged
Who does the secretary-general of the UN represent?
the member states of the UN
Where does the UN General Assembly's power lie?
in its control of finances for UN programs
Which program leads the worldwide effort to eradicate smallpox?
the World Health Organization
What is the greatest shortcoming of the World Court?
Many states have declined to subject themselves to the jurisdiction of the court.
Enforcement of international law depends heavily on
reciprocity, collective action, and international norms.
When diplomats commit a serious crime in a foreign host country, what are the typical consequences?
They have their diplomatic status revoked and are forced to return to their home country.
What is the bedrock of international law?
respect for the rights of diplomats
What international document outlines the UN's core set of principles addressing human rights?
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Why is enforcing the norms of human rights difficult?
because it involves interfering in a state's domestic affairs
What statement does not accurately describe the international laws of warfare?
They forbid the use of military force in any circumstance where it is known in advance that civilians will be killed.
What is the purpose of having laws of warfare?
to impose moral responsibility on individuals in wartime
The WTO's "most favored nation" concept says that
any trade restrictions imposed by a WTO member on its most favored trading partner must be applied equally to all WTO members.
Mercantilists favor trade policies that produce a trade surplus for their own state because
a positive trade balance generates money that can be used to enhance state power.
Which is NOT likely to be a drawback to increased international trade?
The overall efficiency of production will be decreased.
What form of predatory trading practice entails the export of products to foreign markets at prices below the minimum level necessary to make a profit?
With respect to international trade, liberalism emphasizes the
shared benefits that states derive from promoting economic exchanges.
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe how economic sanctions work?
They are an especially effective way for states to force other states to behave differently.
Long-term policies of autarky
have been largely discredited as a viable economic strategy.
To recover from the Great Depression and to stop future global depressions, the United States did all of the following EXCEPT
expand the provisions of the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Act to impose stiffer tariffs on agricultural competition.
Why are tariffs the preferred method of protectionism?
because they are straightforward and not hidden
In what case does a customs union become a common market?
if the members also decide to coordinate economic policies that go beyond shared trade barriers and a common tariff
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an example of a(n)
At the 2001 meeting at Doha, the declaration that states could exempt certain drugs from TRIPS rules to deal with serious domestic health crises addressed what trade negotiation issue?
intellectual property rights
In international trade enforcement, what is a downward spiral of noncooperation called?
a trade war
Which of the following groups is NOT a well-organized opponent of unrestricted expansions in free trade?
NGOs seeking to keep U.S. consumer prices low
When political authorities set prices and decide on quotas for production and consumption of each commodity according to a long-term plan, it is an instance of a(n)
centrally planned economy
Which great power (a permanent member of the UN Security Council) is NOT presently among the World Trade Organization's 153 member states?
A high degree of trade cooperation is most likely when the polarity of the international system is one of
The principle of comparative advantage suggests that states should
produce only the goods they are most qualified to produce and engage in free trade with other states.
One example of a nontariff barrier to trade is...
Which of these statements is true concerning economic nationalism?
It is the use of economic practices to influence international power and relative standing in the international system.
What does the Super 301 provision-a form of trade enforcement-mandate?
retaliation against states that restrict access of U.S. goods to their markets
Thus far, which area of the world has seen the most wealth accumulation as a result of creating a regional free-trade area?
Under which part of a nation's economy does banking, insurance, and financial services fall?
the services sector