Science Ch. 6 (9th Grade)

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Refrigerators and air conditioners are examples of _________.

heat movers

Wind and ocean currents are formed by _______.

convection

A material that reduces the flow of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation is a(n) ___________.

insulator

All the following are good conductors of heat EXCEPT ________.
silver, copper, aluminum, and air

air

Of the following, insulation that is most resistant to heat flow is rated ________.
R-40, R-20, R-10, and R-1

R-40

The process by which engine fuels burn is ________.

combustion

Through which of the following will convection most likely occur?
solids and liquids, solids and gases, solids, and liquids and gases

liquids and gases

Gasoline and diesel engines are _______.

internal combustion engines

The transfer of energy that does not require matter is _________.

radiation

Solar collectors are parts of ________.

active solar heating systems

Energy from the sun travels to Earth as ________.

radiant energy

Of the following, the best insulator would be _________.
silver, copper, air, and iron

air

A device that heats your home by transferring thermal energy from a region of low temperature to a region at a higher temperature is a __________.

heat mover

A device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy is a ________.

heat engine

The effectiveness of insulation is rated with a(n) __________.

R-value

The inside surfaces of the glass inside vacuum bottles are coated with aluminum to prevent heat loss by ___________.

radiation

Compared to the efficiency of a gasoline engine, a diesel engine is ________.

twice as efficient

Temperature measures the ________ of the particles of a material.

kinetic energy

Two equal masses of two different kinds of matter __________.

probably have different thermal energy

The specific heat of an object depends on its _________.

chemical makeup

Compare and contrast heat and temperature.

Temperature is the measure of kinetic energy. Heat is kinetic and potential energy.

How does thermal energy relate to heat?

heat is thermal energy that flows from higher temperature to lower temperature.

Water has very high specific heat. Why does this make it a very good substance for use in cooling systems of automobiles?

takes a long time to get hot.

A well-insulated house should have insulation with an R-value of at least R-19 in the walls and an R-value or R-30 to R-44 in the ceilings. Why is a higher R-value needed in the ceilings?

cause heat rises.

Why do the pipes in a steam-heating system need to be insulated?

so it doesn't loose heat.

What is the equation for measuring the change in thermal energy?

Q=m (delta T) C

fan moves warm air

forced air

a pump circulates a liquid to a radiator

hot water

large windows on south side of building

passive solar

hot vapor is forced through radiators

steam

large tank for storing water heated by the sun

active solar

gives uniform warmth

electrical

If particles move _______ the object's temperature falls.

slowly

Conduction can take place in solids, liquids, and _______.

gases

Thermal energy includes both kinetic and ___________ energy.

potential

Any material that can flow is a _______.

fluid

Any material that allows heat to pass through it easily is a __________.

conductor

Materials with a high specific heat can absorb heat without a large ___________ in temperature.

change

Radiation is the transfer of energy in the form of ________.

waves

When an objects increases in temperature it __________ thermal energy

gains

Many conductors, such as silver and copper, are _______.

metals

Energy travels by radiation is often called _________ ________.

radiant energy

Insulators, such as wood and air, are poor conductors of _______.

heat

The transfer of thermal energy by convection and conduction both require _________.

matter

Using solar energy is especially appealing because it is __________.

free

Most _________ ________ use fuel or electricity as a source of energy.

heating systems

A house with large windows on its south side and few windows on its other sides probably uses a(n) ____________ solar heating system.

passive

Solar collectors are used in buildings that have _________ solar heating systems.

active

Fuel burned un a stove or fireplace transfers thermal energy to the surrounding air by __________, convection, and radiation.

conduction

Before solar energy can be used as a source of heat, it must be changed to _______ ________.

thermal energy

_________ means rapid burning.

combustion

A two-way heat mover is a _______ ________.

heat pump

A ________ is the movement of a piston up or down.

stroke

___________- related to the average kinetic of an object's atoms or molecules.

temperature

________- the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the atoms in an object.

thermal energy

Thermal energy ____________ as temperature increases.

increases

At constant temperature, thermal energy increases if __________ increases.

temperature

Thermal energy that flows from something at a lower temperature is called _______.

heat

______- amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material b 1 degree C or K.

specific

Changes in thermal energy can be calculated as change in thermal energy equals _______ times change in temperature times specific heat.

mass

When heat flows into an object and its temperature rises, the change in temperature is ____________.

positive

When heat flood out of an object and its temperature decreases, the change in temperature is _______.

negative

A _________ is used to measure specific heat.

calorimeter

___________- transfer of thermal energy through matter by direct contact of particles.

conduction

Kinetic energy is transferred as particles ______.

collide

__________, particularly metals, are good heat conductors.

solids

The transfer of energy by the motion of heated particles in fluid is called _______.

convection

Convection _________ transfer heat from warmer to cooler parts of a fluid.

currents

Convection currents create __________ and ____________ over different regions of Earth.

rain forests and deserts

_________- energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.

radiation

Some radiation is _________ and some is ________ when it strikes a material.

absorbed and reflected

Heat transfer by radiation is ________ in a gas than in a liquid or solid.

faster

Most living things control the flow of heat by using special features such as fur, ______, or scales.

fat

__________- material that does not let heat flow through it easily.

insulator

Gases such as _________ usually make better insulators than liquids or solids.

air

A __________ layer in a thermos is a good insulator because it contains almost no matter to allow conduction or convection to occur.

glass

_______ systems- warm homes and buildings.

heating

________ system - fuel heats air, which is blown through ducts and vents; cool air is returned to the furnace to be reheated.

forced air

________ system - hot water or steam in a radiator transfers thermal energy to the air.

radiator

________ heating system - electrically heated coils in ceilings or floors heat sir by conduction.

electric

_______- energy from the sun.

solar

_________ solar heating does not use mechanical devices to move heat.

passive

Active heating systems use ____________ to absurd radiant energy, which is circulated through the building.

solar collectors

____________ - an engine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.

heat engine

An _____________ engine burns fuel inside the engine in chambers or cylinders.

internal combustion

internal combustion engines convert only about _____% of the fuels chemical energy to mechanical energy.

25

________- device that removes thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location at a different temperature.

heat mover

A __________ contains a coolant that absorbs heat from the inside of the refrigerator and releases it one the outside as heat.

refrigerator

___________ cool warm air.

heat pump

_________ can both cool and warm air.

air conductor

The human body stays cool by ___________ of sweat.

evaporation

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