Ch. 37 APUSH

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the cold war begins

Americans feared that the end of World War II would bring

mainly a return to the Depression.

The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by

outlawing the closed (all-union) shops.

The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by

fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.

On the home front in 1946, the post-war United States was characterized by

an epidemic of labor strikes.

The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 was passed to

check the growing power of labor unions.

The growth of organized labor in the post-World War II era was slowed by all of the following except

the reduced number of women in the work force.

In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman administration did all of the following except

continue wartime wage and price controls.

The post-World War II prosperity in the U.S. was most beneficial to

women.

The feminist revolt of the 1960s was sparked by

a clash between the demands of the traditional role of women as wives and mothers and the realities of employment.

The long economic boom from World War II to the 1970s was fueled primarily by

low energy costs.

Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on

colossal military budgets.

One sign of the stress that the immediate growth of post-World War II geographic mobility placed an American families was the

popularity of advice books on child-rearing.

Post-World War II American workers made spectacular gains in

productivity owing to their rising educational levels.

Since 1945, the population in the United States has grown most in the

sunbelt.

Much of the Sunbelt's new prosperity was based on its

tremendous influx of money from the federal government.

All of the following encouraged many Americans to move to the suburbs except

development of fuel-efficient automobiles.

The rapid rise of suburbia in post-WWII America can be attributed to the

baby boom, government mortgage guarantees, new highways, and "white flight".

By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan suburbs was

approximately one out of four.

The continued growth of the suburbs led to an

increase in urban poverty.

Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of an

urban-suburban segregation of blacks and white in major cities.

The refusal of FHA administrators to grant home loans to blacks resulted in

driving many blacks into public housing.

The huge "baby boom"

crested in the (late 1950s) and has been declining ever since.

The baby-boom generation will create a major problem in the future by

placing an enormous strain on the Social Security system.

Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics except

willingness to admit mistakes.

The U.S. believed that it was desirable to have the Soviet Union participate in the projected invasion of Japan because

Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties.

The origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over

postwar arrangements in Eastern Europe.

Joseph Stalin's postwar security concerns focused primarily

on Eastern Europe.

The responsibility for starting the Cold War rests with the

United States and Soviet Union.

The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved

inability to control atomic energy, especially in the manufacture of weapons.

In regard to postwar Germany, the Big Three allies agreed

that high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.

When the Soviet Union the United States, Britain, and France access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by

organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.

Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by

advising a policy of containment.

The postwar policies adopted by the Truman administration toward the Soviet Union were based on the assumption that

the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist.

The immediate concern that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was

related to events in Greece and Turkey.

Under the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. pledged to support those who were resisting

subjugation by communists.

Point Four

- aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa NATO
- resist Soviet military threat Truman Doctrine
- assist communist-threatened Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan
- promote economic recovery of Europe

Truman's defenders argue that he exaggerated the Soviet threat because

he received bad intelligence from the CIA.

President Truman's Marshall Plan called for

military aid for Europe.

The Marshall Plan finally passed Congress largely because

it was perceived there as economically beneficial to the United States.

All of the following objected to President Truman's support for the establishment of Israel except

America's European allies.

American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all of the following for the country except

help reintegrate Germany into the European family.

The U.S.' participation in NATO

reaffirmed our long-standing commitment to the defense of Europe, marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism, reduced the need for increased military spending, and helped to resolve the problem of Germany.

Postwar Japan had its military leaders tried for

war crimes, as had occurred in Germany.

Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the communists and Mao Ze-dong mainly because

Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.

In an effort to detect communists within the government, President Harry Truman established

the Loyalty Review Board.

In 1948, many southern Democrats split from the party because

President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights.

In chronological order:

Berlin airlift, fall of China, Korean War.

President Truman's domestic legislative plan was

dubbed the Fair Deal.

President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated

his commitment to a foreign policy of containment.

NSC-68 called for

a massive increase in military spending.

The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief in the limitless capabilities of the

American economy and society.

In chronological order:

Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO.

President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from command of United Nations troops in Korea when

MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies.

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