Chapter 28 Gastrointestinal disorders

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anasarca

severe generalized edema

anthelminitics

medicines that fight against worms

colitis

inflammation of the colon

colonscopy

provides visualization of the entire colon to the ileocecal valve

currant jelly stools

movements of blood and mucus that contain no feces

encopresis

constipation with fecal soiling

endoscopy

allows direct visualization of the GI tract through a flexible lighted tube

enterocolitis

inflammation of the small bowel and colon

guarding

there is a tightening of the abdominal muscles or rigidity of the abdomen on palpation

herniorrhaphy

surgical procedure to repair a hernia

homeostasis

a uniform state (state of balance)

hypertonic

the client has lost more fluids than electrolytes

hypotonic

the child has lost more electrolytes than water

incarcerated hernia

when a hernia can not be put back into place by gentile pressure

isotonic

the patient has lost equal amounts of fluids and electrolytes

McBurney's point

characteristic tenderness in the right lower quadrant

parenteral fluids

fluids given by some route other than the digestive tract

peritoneal dialysis

passing of a solute through a membrane

pica

craving for nonfood items

plumbism

lead poisoning

polyhydramnios

accumulation of fluid in the amniotic sac

projectile vomiting

when vomit is forcefully ejected a considerable distance from the mouth

pruritus

itching

rebound tenderness

pressing the RLQ with rapid release of pressure causes severe pain

reflux

happens when the lower esophageal sphincter is relaxed or not competent, which allows stomach contents to be easily regurgitated into the esophagus

sigmoidoscopy

inspection of the lower colon

stenosis

narrowing

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