Chapter 5: The Integumentary Sysytem

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what are the two major components in the integumentary system?

cutaneous membrane and the accessory structure.

the cutaneous membrane is made up of what two components?

epidermis and dermis.

another term for epidermis

superficial epithelium.

what are the accessory structures?

hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands.

where are the accessory structures located?

dermis.

another term for hypodermis

subcutaneous layer.

what is the function of the skin and subcutaneous layer?

protection, secretion, maintenance, synthesis of vitamin d3, nutrient storage, and sensory detection

what specific layer is part of the epidermis?

the stratified squamous epithelium.

Thin skin is formed by: ___________________

4 layers of keratinocytes.

thick skin, is formed by: ________________

5 layers of keratinocytes.

What is the function of the epidermis?

provide mechanical protection, prevent fluid loss, and help keep microorganisms out of the body.

What is the first layer of the epidermis?

stratum germinativum (stratum basale).

What is the second layer of the epidermis?

stratum spinosum.

What is the third layer of the epidermis?

stratum granulosum.

What is the fourth layer of the epidermis?

stratum lucidum.

What is the fifth layer of the epidermis?

stratum corneum.

Where are langerhan cells located?

stratum spinosum

where are merkel cells located?

stratum germinativum (stratum basale).

cyanosis

bluish skin color.

scab

a blood clot that forms at the surface of a wound to the skin.

keloid

a thickened area of scar tissue covered by a shiny smooth epidermal surface.

EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)

promotes growth division, and repair of the epidermis, and the secretion of epithelial glands.

What are the two components of the dermis layer?

papillary layer, and reticular layer.

papillary layer

contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and sensory nerves.

reticular layer

meshwork of collagen, and elastic fibers.

stretch marks

extensive distension of the dermis.

lines of cleavage

pattern of collagen and elastic fiber bundles.

integumentary systems detect ___________

light touch, and pressure.

the hypodermis stabilizes ____________

skin's position against underlying organs and tissues.

where does hair originates from?

complex organs.

another term for complex organ?

hair follicles.

what two components does a hair have?

root and shaft.

what is the base of the root of the hair?

hair papilla.

two types of hairs our body has?

vellus and terminal hairs.

club hair

hair that has stopped growing.

arrector pili

can erect a single hair.

the sebaceous gland discharges waxy ________ into a lumen ________ and ultimately, into a hair follicle.

sebum

sebaceous follicles

large sebaceous glands that discharge sebum directly onto the epidermis.

sudoriferous glands

two types of glands, which are the apocrine, and merocrine sweat glands.

apocrine glands

produce an odorous secretion.

merocrine (or eccrine) sweat glands

produce watery secretion known as sensible perspiration.

glands of the breasts that are structurally similar to sweat glands.

mammary glands.

ceruminous glands

located in the ear that produce a waxy substance called cerumen.

nail body of a nail covers the ________________

nail bed.

nail production occurs in the_______________

nail root.

the free edge of the nail extends over the _________________

hyponychium.

1st step in repairing the skin

formation of the scab.

2nd step in repairing the skin

formation of the granulation tissue.

3rd step in repairing the skin

formation of the scar tissue.

with aging; what are the effects?

integument thins, blood flow decrease, cellular activity decreases, repairs are more slow.

The integument system has extensive anatomical and physiological ________________

connections with other body systems.

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