President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
Televised presidential debates of 1960
Between Kennedy and Nixon, the first televised presidential debates that helped JFK win the election because of his friendly and stand-out manner as opposed to Nixon's nervousness
Advocated by JFK in 1960, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military in opposition the Eisenhower's conservatives views
"The Kennedy Round"
main goals: to slash tariffs by half with a minimum of exceptions, to break down farm trade restrictions, to strip away nontariff regulations, and to aid developing nations.
Lee Harvey Oswald
United States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights act of 1965. wanted to end poverty. main goals included the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was medicare and medicaid.
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964
"The Great Society"
Series of domestic initiatives by LBJ in 1964 to "end poverty and racial injustice" including the Voting Rights Act of 1965, est of the Dept of Housing and Urban Development, Head Start, job-training programs, Medicare and Medicaid expansion, and others
health care for the aged
health care for the needy
Office of Economic Opportunities
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
government coupons that can be used to purchase food
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
1965, provided education aid to states based on the number of children from low income homes
Immigration Act of 1965
(LBJ) Abolished the quota system and established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
first African American cabinet member
black students politely order food from restraunt, not served, sat in place for days & days, gathering supporters.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Congress of Racial Equality
an organization founded by James Leonard in 1942 to work for racial equality
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Alabama city against equal rights; peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police.
runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
Civil Rights Act/Voting Rights Act
gave federal protection to black voters .
Detroit race riots,1965
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Black Muslims-Nation of Islam
preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration then changed his views and was assassinated
wrote The Autobiography of Malcolm X
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
the difference in how many nuclear weapons the United States had compared to how many the Soviet Union had.
the military branch created by JFK to be able to wage counter-insurgency campaigns better
"alliance for progress"
United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Agency for International Development
JFK's foreign aid program, creates the
1962 Alliance For Progress
(JFK), volunteers helped third world nations and prevented the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty
The Bay of Pigs
1961, unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
ruled the USSR after Stalin, seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Ho Chi Minh
communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
conference between countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnam non-Communist leader
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
The First Indochina War
War between French and communist forces in Vietnam over who would control the country after WWII; French withdrew after loss at Dien Bien Phu.
students and teachers taught classes on the Vietnam war and protested against its expansion
J. William Fulbright
this senator wrote The Arrogance of Power and attacked the justification for the Vietnam War and the Senators who supported it
"guns and butter"
models the relationship between a nation's investment in defense and civilian goods; a nation has to choose between two options when spending. It can buy either guns (invest in defense/military) or butter (invest in production of goods)
North Vietnamese Communists led by Ho Chi Minh
Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam- National Liberation Front
Secretary of State during the Vietnam War
Secretary of Defense during Vietnam- the architech for the Vietnam war
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gave LBJ authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
a network of paths used by North Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South Vietnam
"peace with honor"
A phrase Nixon used to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.
1968 Democratic candidate on an anti-war platform.
Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals.
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr.
"golden age" of JFK's presidency
middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wanted their votes
Soviet leader after Khrushchev