A transportation system that carries oxygen, digested foods, cell wastes, electrolytes, and many substances which are vital to the body's homeostasis to and from the body cells
a cone-shaped organ, the size of a fist located within the medial cavity of the thorax
the pointed end of the heart which extends slightly to the left and rests on the diaphragm
the doule-walled fibrous sac which encloses the heart
aka the epicardium. It is a thin layer, closely applied to the heart muscle
a serous membrane which is attached at the heart apex to the diaphragm. This lines the losely fitting superficial fibrous pericardium
dense connective tissue that is lined by the parietal pericardium
inflammation of the pericardium which causes painful adhesions between the serous pericardial layers. These adhesions interfere with heart movements
cardiac muscle which composes a lot of the walls of the heart. The walls are reinforced internally by a dense fibrous connective tissue network
Two superior chambers of the heart, serve as receiving chambers
two inferior chambers of the heart
Each chamber of the heart is lined by thin serous endothelium
septum that divides the heart longitudinally
superior and inferior venae cavae
The source of relatively oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium.
deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Routes blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. Pumped by the right ventricle
The source from which all systemic arteries of the body diverge to supply the body tissue. Pumped by the left ventricle.
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Valves located between the atrial and ventricular chambers on each side of the heart, prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting.
aka the mitral valve, is the left atrioventricular valve. It consists of two cusps of endocardium.
The right atrioventricular valve which consists of three cusps
"heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. They originate from the papillary muscles.
Small bundles of cardiac muscle that project from the myocardial wall
The period of ventricular filling. The blood is flowing passively into the atria and then into the ventricles
when the ventricles contract and compress the blood in their chambers, intraventricular blood pressure rises, causing the atrioventricular valves to close and the papillary muscles pull the chodae tendinae tight to prevent backflow into the atria during ventricular contraction
Pulmonary and aortic semiulnar valves
the second set of valves in the heart. Each are composed of three pocketlike cusps which guard the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers. They are forced open as the ventricles discharge their blood into the large arteries during systole.
The right side of the heart is responsible for this type of circulation which shunts the carbon dioxide-rich blood entering its chambers to the lungs to unload carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen, and then back to the left side of the heart. The function of this circuir is strictly to provide gas exchange.
The left side of the heart is responsible for this type of circulation which carries oxygen-rich blood from the left heart, through the body tissues and back to the right heart. It provides the functional blood supply to all body tissues.
The providers of the functional blood supply of the heart. They are issued froom the base of the aorta and encircle the heart in the atrioventricular groove. They then ramify over the heart's surface. The right artery supplies the posterior surface of the ventricles and the lateral aspect of the right side of the heart. The left artery supplies the anterior ventricular walls and the laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart via its two branches. These arteries and their branches are all compressed during systole and fill when the heart is relaxed.
Posterior interventricular and marginal artery
Branches of the right coronary artery which supply the posterior surface of the ventricles and the lateral aspect of the right side of the heart.
Anterior interventricular and circumflex artery
Two major branches of the left coronary artery which supply blood to the anterior ventricular walls and the laterodorsal part of the left side of the heart via its two major branches
the great, middle, and small veins which drain the myocardium
The great, middle, and small cardiac veins all empty into here, which in turn empties into the right atrium.
areas where the cardiac cells interdigitate