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concentration

A measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent of solution

molarity

number of moles/liters of solution

dilution formula

v1m1=v2m2 only with water

molality

moles of solute/kg of solvent

mass percent

mass of solute/mass of solutionX100

dissociation

The separation of ions that occur when an ionic compound dissolves

precipitate/precipitation

A solid produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution

when precipitation occurs

precipitation occurs when the attraction between ions is greater than the attraction between ions and surrounding water molecules.

net ionic equation

includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution.

spectator ions

ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction

ionization

the process whereby solute molecules became ions by the action of the solvent

colligative properties

properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not the identity. ex: vapor pressure lowering, boiling point lowering, freezing point depression

freezing point depression

delta^ts=ksm. k=-1.86

boiling point elevation

delta^tb=kbm. k=.51

naming hydrates

MgSO4 * 7H2O=magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
1=mono
2=di
3=tri
4=tetra
5=penta
6=hexa
7=hepta
8=octa
9=nona
10=deca

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