Which of the following is not considered to be one of the most important groups contributing to the process of socialization, according to social process theories?
family, peers, work groups, and reference groups
Which of the following theories are a social process theory?
dramaturgical perspective, social learning theory, social control theory, labeling theory, and reintegrative theory
According to social learning theory, criminal behavior is:
a product of the social environment, not an innate characteristic of particular people
Given the basic principles of differential association theory, which of the following situations is most likely to produce delinquency?
because of an excess of definitions favorable to law violation over definitions unfavorable to law violation.
According to differential association theory, how does learning criminal behavior differ from learning other types of behavior?
learning includes techniques of committing crime and the specific direction of motives, drives rationalization and attitudes.
The idea that the behaviors of others are observed and modeled is the basis of which of Akers' primary learning mechanisms?
Social control theories focus on
seek to identify those features of the personality and the environment that keep people from committing crimes
According to containment theory, a positive self-image is an important __________ containment.
Which of the following are an example of a push towards crime?
participation in a delinquent subculture, deprivation, biological propensities toward deviant behavior, and psychological maladjustment.
Social bond theory postulates that
when a bond is broken that forms between individuals and the social group deviance and crime may result
The __________ element of a social bond refers to the amount of energy and effort put into activities with other people.
Which of the following elements of a social bond is similar to Reckless's concept of meaningful roles?
The aspect of the social bond that sets social bond theory apart from subcultural approaches is
According to Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime, the key concept in explaining all forms of criminal behavior is
the belief that crime is a natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
An individual with a control surplus would be most likely to engage in which of the following types of deviant behavior?
exploitation, plunder, & decadence
Transitory deviance can be stabilized in a person's behavioral repertoire through
the labeling process
Which of the following are one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?
-Deviance is the result of social processes involving the imposition of definitions rather than the consequence of any quality inherent in human activity itself.
-Deviant individuals achieve their status by virtue of social definition rather than inborn traits.
-The reaction of society to deviant behavior and to those who engage in such behavior is the major element in determining the criminality of the behavior and the person in question
-Negative self-images follow processing by the formal criminal justice system rather than precede delinquency.
-Labeling by society and handling by the justice system tend to perpetuate crime and delinquency rather than reduce them.
According to labeling theory, the major element in determining the criminality of an individual is
The reaction of society to deviant behavior and to those who engage in such behavior.
According to Becker's typology of delinquents, a person who commits a crime and is caught and punished for that crime is a(n) __________ deviant.
The __________ deviant category in Becker's typology demonstrates the power of social definition by the lack of consequences attached to the offense.
According to Becker's typology, a person who is punished for a crime he or she did not commit is a(n) __________ deviant.
Research by Bernburg and Krohn found that __________ people were more negatively impacted by official processing.
Listing the names of drunk drivers on a billboard posted on I-95 is an example of __________ shaming.
__________ attempts to teach positive values to juveniles through one-on-one mentoring with favorable adult role models.
Which of the following programs is based on concepts basic to social process theories?
JUMP - Juvenile mentoring programs
__________ focuses on early childhood risk factors for gang involvement.
JUMP Programs or Montreal prevention treatment programs
Which of the following are a criticism of differential association theory?
- The claim that Sutherland's initial formulation of differential association is not applicable at the individual level because even people who experience an excess of definitions favorable to law violation may still not become criminal and those who rarely associate with recognized deviants may still turn to crime.
- the theory is untestable because most people experience a multitude of definitions - both favorable and unfavorable to law violation - and it is up to them to interpret what those experiences mean, so classifying experiences as wither favorable or unfavorable to crime commission is difficult at best.
- that differential association alone is not a sufficient explanation for crime
- does not seem to provide for free choice in individual circumstances, nor does it explain why some individuals, even when surrounded by associates committed to lives of crime, are still able to hold to noncriminal values.
- fails to account for the emergence of criminal values, addressing only the communication of those values.
Which of the following is not one of the four dimensions of a criminal career?
Participation, frequency, duration, and seriousness
Which of the following are a question that a life course researcher would ask?
a. How do early-childhood characteristics lead to adult behavioral processes and outcomes?
b. How do life transitions influence behavior and behavioral choices?
c. How do offending and victimization interact over the life cycle?
Which of the following are one of the three sets of dynamic concepts important to the life course perspective?
Activation, aggravation, and desistance
Which of the following are one of the three types of activation that are possible?
acceleration, stabilization, and diversification
The dynamic process of __________ refers to the existence of a developmental sequence of activities that increase in seriousness over time.
These are an example of desistance?
1. slowing down in the frequency of offending (deceleration)
2. a reduction in its variety (specialization)
3. a reduction in its seriousness (de-escalation)
According to Glen Elder, the effect of the Great Depression on children born during that era is an example of the principle of
Historical time and place
The __________ a person's social capital, the __________ the chance of criminal activity.
Which of the following factors would not enhance a person's social capital?
marriage and full-time employment
According to Matthew Yeager's research, the strongest indicator of post-prison success was
Desistance that occurs without the formal intervention of the criminal justice system is known as __________ desistance.
The __________ component of desistance involves a reduction in the seriousness of offending
According to Wolfgang's analysis of a birth cohort, approximately __________ percent of the cohort members accounted for _________ percent of all arrests.
Which of the following disruptive and antisocial behaviors is likely to be the last to manifest itself in a juvenile?
These are the preliminary results of the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program?
1. Delinquency is related to individual risk factors like impulsivity.
2. The more serious involved in drugs a youth is, the more serious that juvenile will be involved in delinquency.
3. Children who are more attached to and involved with their parents are less involved in delinquency.
4. Greater risks exist for violent offending when a child is physically abused or neglected early in life.
5. Students who are not highly committed to school have higher rates of delinquency, and delinquency involvement reduces commitment to school.
6. Poor family life, especially poor parental supervision, exacerbates delinquency and drug use.
7. Affiliation with street gangs and illegal gun ownership are both predictive of delinquency.
8. Living in a bad neighborhood doubles the risk for delinquency.
9. A family being on public assistance is associated with the highest risk of delinquency.
According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, the first step on the authority conflict pathway to delinquency is marked by which type of behavior?
According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, very young subjects (as young as three years of age) are most likely to be found on the _________ pathway to delinquency.
PHDCN is using a(n) __________ research design to study the development of criminal behavior.