Nutrition Final (Set 2)

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If the diet is chronically low in fat soluble vitamins, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted most?

Vitamins A, D, E, and K

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using weight measures for the assessment of disease risk?

Limited amount of body composition data

Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?

it must be supplied by the diet

Most people in the U.S. need to ____ their salt intake and _____ their potassium intake to meet recommendations for a healthy diet.

decrease; increase

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

Pellagra

A goiter occurs as a result of deficiency of:

iodine

A poorly planned vegan diet is likely to be deficient in all of the following, except:

phytochemicals

What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?

Denaturation

What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating disorder?

Purging

This enzyme is produced in the stomach. It breaks some of the peptide bonds in polypeptide chains.

pepsin

A measure of how good a protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs.

Protein quality

Sulfur is present in practically all ____

proteins

Beriberi results from a deficiency of ____.

thiamin

If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?

protein synthesis will by limited

What is the structures of an enzyme?

protein

The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent ______.

hypertension

Phytic acid, tannins, and oxalates _________ the absorption of many minerals.

decrease

The symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include gums that swell and bleed. Why does this occur?

there is reduced collagen synthesis

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect?
Scurvy
Beriberi
Pellagra
Spina bifida

Spina bifida

What is the function of MFP factor?

Enhances iron absorption

The amino acid pool is comprised of:

the protein molecules consumed in the diet and from the breakdown of body proteins

What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?

Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

antioxidant agent

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called

body mass index

in its role as an antioxidant, this vitamin guards cell membranes, body proteins, DNA, and cholesterol and thus helps prevent heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic diseases.

Vitamin E

Which of the following is required for the absorptino of dietary vitamin B12?

intrinsic factor

Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?

egg

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?

Kidney

What occurs when a cofactor binds to an enzyme?

the enzyme is activated

Bernhard is a football player on your university football team and he is eating high amounts of protein. Considering his high protein intake, how should he adjust his water intake and why?

He needs to increase his daily water intake to help the kidneys excrete the protein waste products.

What is the primary function of the B vitamins?

coenzyme participation

What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?

Kidneys

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

the amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

What is hydroxyapatite?

the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

The diffusion of water in a direction that equalizes the concentration of dissolved substances on either side of a membrane best defines which of the following terms?

osmosis

What function does a buffer perform?

helps maintain a constant pH

Which minerals help regulate fluid balance?

sodium, potassium, and chloride

For most people, the majority of their total energy expenditure is from:

basal metabolism

Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?

The side group

milk and milk products provide liberal amount of which of the following vitamins?

riboflavin

Which of the following is a characteristic of excess body fat that is distributed primarily around the abdomen?

it is associated with increased mortality for both sexes

Which eating disorder is likely to have a normal appearance?

bulimia

the set-point theory proposes that

all people have a genetic set point for their body weight

With a deficiency of this vitamin, even a bruise or small scratch could cause you to bleed to death:

Vitamin K

You would expect that a child who is growing is in ______ nitrogen balance.

positive

TRUE or FALSE: One pound of fat is equal to about 3,500 kcal.

True!

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has

more muscle mass

Hyponatremia refers to low blood concentration of

sodium

Anorexia nervosa is most common in:

female adolescents

William has a BMI of 26.5 kg/m squared. He would therefore be classified as:

overweight

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