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final

all of the following are true of the nervous system, except

function independently of the endocrine system

endocrine cells

release their secretions directly into body fluids

____ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues

hormones

cells can respond to ____ hormones at the same time

a few

hormones known as "catecholamines" are

derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine

peptide hormones are

composed of amino acids

a kinase is an enzyme that performs

phosphorylation

an activated G protein can trigger

-the production of diacylglycerol
-the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane
-the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
-a fall in cAMP levels

calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein

calmodulin

hormones can operate on the ____ level of organization

-cellular
-tissue
-organ
-organismic

the functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ____ system in many ways

endocrine

the hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an ____ organ

endocrine

a simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone

one

which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger

cyclic AMP

all of the following are true of steroid hormones, except

are produced by the suprarenal medulla

each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except

thyroid-stimulating hormone

extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones

catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

steroid hormones

bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells

when a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the

second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. these categories include

-peptides
-steroids
-eicosanoids
-amino acid derivatives

hormonal actions on cells include those that affect

-quantities of enzymes
-activities of enzymes
-synthesis of enzymes
-gating of ion channels

the link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is

a G protein

when adenyl cyclase is activated

ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

after a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex

gene transcription is initiated

the most complex endocrine responses involve the

hypothalamus

hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors

-blood level of an ion-like potassium
-blood level of glucose
-blood level of a hormone
-nervous stimuli

which of the following hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors

insulin and epinephrine

all target cells

have hormone receptors

if the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose

glucagon

increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of

cAMP

destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result

loss of ADH secretion

the primary function of ADH is to

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

if the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones

TSH, ACTH, PRL

changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

ADH

the hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by

secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system

neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture

ADH and oxytocin

secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release

-FSH
-TSH
-ACTH
-GH

the hypophyseal portal system

-is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
-has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins
-carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary
-carries ADH and oxytocin

the main action antidiuretic hormone is

increased water conservation by kidneys

excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

gigantism

which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates

growth hormones

which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin

-prostate
-ductus deferens
-mammary glands
-uterus

the posterior pituitary gland secretes

ADH

the hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is

MSH

each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophyis, except

oxytocin

the hormone oxytocin

-promotes uterine contractions
-is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands
-triggers prostate gland contractions
-is the produced in the hypothalamus

growth hormone does all of the following, except

causes fat accumulation with adipocytes

liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

somatomedins

the pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

TSH

the pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is

ACTH

the pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

FSH

the pituitary hormones that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

LH

the pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

prolactin

the pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is

somatotropin

the pituitary hormone that cuases the kidney to reduce water loss is

ADH

after brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. the ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. which one?

ADH

the term used to describe excess production of urine is

polyuria

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia

-during pregnancy
-in very young children
-during fetal development
-in some disease processes

the two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones

9

PRL is to ____ as ACTH is to ____

prolactin; corticotropin

the hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is

oxytocin

which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone

iodine

which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration

osteoclasts

which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues

-increased oxygen consumption
-increased heart rate
-increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation
-increased body temperature

thyroid hormone contains the element

iodine

mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of

hypothyroidism

the hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is

thyroxine

a hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is

calcitonin

the condition known as hirsutism can result from too

much androgen production

the C cells of the thyroid gland produce

calcitonin

increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood

PTH

where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place

in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones

synthesis and release

the control of calcitonin excretion is a example of direct ____ regulation

endocrine

inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to

-hypothyroidism
-cretinism
-myxedema
high blood levels of THS

thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

thyroid gland

the action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps except one. identify the incorrect step

binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane

which of the following is not an action of TSH

inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. what glands are these and which hormone is lacking

parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't

build up bone

the hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

parathyroid hormone

the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

increases the level of calcium ions in the blood

the zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces

androgens

the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces

glucocorticoids

the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces

mineralcorticoids

the suprarenal medulla produces

catecholamines

a hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is

cortisol

a hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is

aldosterone

Cushing disease results from an excess of

glucocorticoids

reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of

aldosterone

the suprarenal medulla produces the hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine

damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

a rise in cortisol would cause an increaase in each of the following, except

ACTH levels

if a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to supress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry

both an increase of insulin and an increase in blood glucose

too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

Addison disease

a hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is

cortisol

cells of the suprarenal cortex produce

aldosterone

which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system

epinephrine

which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body to adjust to stress

adrenal (suprarenal)

which group of hormones cause and an anti-inflammatory action

glucocorticoids

hormones from the adrenal cortex that electrolyte balance are

mineralcorticoids

which of these statements about melatonin is false

exposure to light stimulates production

pinealocytes produce

melatonin

melatonin is produced by the

pineal gland

each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it

is a component of the hypothalamus

the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by

increased levels of melatonin

alpha cells are to ____ as beta cells are to ____

glucagon; insulin

if a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting

glucagon

the primary targets of insulin are

-skeletal muscle fibers
-adipocytes
-liver cells
-cardiac muscle cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is

insulin

in persons with untreated diabetes mellitus

-blood glucose levels are very high
-excessive thirst is shown
-glucose is present in the urine in large amounts
-a large excretion of urine occurs

which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin

low blood glucose

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. the tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. this tumor probably involves cells of the

zona reticularis

when blood glucose levels rise

insulin is released

when blood glucose levels fall

glucagon is released

the beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

insulin

he delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

somatostatin

the exocrine portion of the pancreas produces

digestive enzymes

type II diabetes is characterized by

a lack of response by target cells to insulin

which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood

insulin

which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin

blood-glucose concentration

the currently recognized normal range of blood-glucose is

70-110 mg/dl

the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)

contain four types of endocrine cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is

insulin

inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

diabetes mellitus

a rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except

increased urine production

angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the

lungs

the enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of

angiotensin

the interstitial cells of the testes produce

testosterone

follicle cells in the ovary secrete ____ when stimulated by FSH

estrogen

a structure known as the corpus luteum secretes

progesterone

the hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is

inhibin

the hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are

thymosins

which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells

erythropoietin

the kidneys secrete

-renin
-erythropoietin
-calcitrol
-hormones to regulate sodium ion concentration

cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

epidermis of the integumentary system

the heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except

thymosin and thyroxine

increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones

sex hormones

the hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is

epinephrine

proper growth requires which of these hormones

-thyroid hormone
-calcitrol
-insulin
-growth hormone

during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is

mobilization of energy reserves

if stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

resistance

hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the

glucocorticoids

during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

lipid reserves are mobilized

the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

failure of electrolyte balance

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