ANPS Lab Flash Cards Exam 4

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Which of the following male reproductive structures produces spermatozoa and androgen hormones (primarily testosterone)?

testes

What is the name of the structure that carries sperm from the epididymis to the internal pelvic cavity of a male?

ductus deferens

Which of the following male glands has both the urethra and the ejaculatory duct passing through it?

prostate gland

Which of the following correctly lists the order sperm would pass on the way out of the body?

Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and penile urethra

The ductus or vas deferens

enlarges distally to form the ampulla

Comparing male versus female anatomy, it is evident that

only the male urethra functions in both the urinary and reproductive systems

Seminal fluid

is produced by the prostate, bulbo-urethral, and seminal vesicles

Testosterone is produced in the

interstitial cells

Sperm is produced in the _____ and stored in the _____.

seminiferours tubules, epididymis

Which of the following correctly describes the spermatic cord?

the pampiniform plexus lies within the cord

Which female reproductive structure secretes female sex hormones and produces oocytes?

ovaries

Which tubes is found anterior to the vagina?

urethra

Which female reproductive structure is NOT found in the internal pelvic cavity of the female?

Labia minus and majus

in which structure does the antrum, an expanded central chamber of the follicle, first appear

tertiary follice

Which structure secretes progesterone and estrogens?

corpus luteum

A primordial follicle

is an inactive primary oocyte that is surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicle cells

The female gonad is the _____ and the gamete is a/an _____.

ovary; oocyte

The vagina is

all the listed responses are correct

The vagina is

anterior to the rectum, posterior to the urethra, inferior to the ovaries

In its normal position, the uterus body of the uteus bends anteriorly, lying across the superior and posterior surfaces of the urinary bladder. This position is known as

anteflexion

The layers of the uterine wall from outer to inner are

perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium

The regions of the uterus are the

fundus, body, and cervix

Fertilization typically occurs in the

ampulla of the uterine tubes

Blood supply to the uterus

comes from the uterine and ovarian arteries

Nutrient rich blood travels to the fetus via

an umbilical vein

Oxygen delivery to the fetus occurs

when oxygen diffuses from maternal blood into the chorionic villi and then to fetal vessels

The chorionic villi

provide a surface area for active and passive exhange between maternal and fetal bloodstreams

An embryo becomes a fetus at about _____ after fertilization.

9 weeks

As pregnancy progresses, the

growing fetus puts pressure on the underlying urinary bladder of the mother

A breech birth occurs when a fetus enters the birth canal with its

legs or buttocks first

Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?

blood cells and large particles

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?

Hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)

Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?

Protein

If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?

net filtration would decrease

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm HG, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg

25 mm Hg

Which of the choices below bests describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute

Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)

What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

autoregulation

Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?

Renin-antiotensin system

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulariton primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?

Afferent arterioles

In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?

release of ANP and BNP

What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?

renin

Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR

Sympathetic fibers override local controls to decrease the GFR

What are the two main parts of the nephron?

the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule

Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?

afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole

Which of the following is not a fucntion of the kidneys?

exchange of oxygen an dcarbon dioxide with the tissues

Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman's capsule

white blood cells

Which structures form the filtration membrane in the nephron

glomerulus and the glomerular capsule

Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?

Decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing hte afferent arteriole diameter

Which of the following resulted in a decreased in glomerular capillary pressure?

Increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter

What is the normal range for glomerular filtration rate?

80-140 ml/min

What is (are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron

hydrostatic pressure gradients, osmotic pressure gradients, and Starling forces

The functions of the nephron include all of the following except _____.

glomerular secretion

What is the naame for the "ball" of capillaries found in the renal corpuscle

glomerulus

As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?

Glomerular filtration was increased, and urine volume increased

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, __________

urine volume was zero

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _________

the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased

Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______

glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis

Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arterioles occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as ____

intrinsic

Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate

increasing the efferent arteriole radius and decreasing the afferent arteriole

In this activity, the drain beaker (second beaker in the flow) stimulates the ___

renal vein

When the beaker pressure was lowered, which of the following decreased?

glomerular pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine volume

When blood pressure increased, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate

Constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole

When the efferent arteriole constricts, _____

the back pressure in the Bowman's capsule increases

Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following tubules?

transcellular

During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubue, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?

an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium

The decreased intracellular concentration of sodum in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?

the sodium-potassium ATPas pump in the basolateral membrane

The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?

sodium

Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?

Na+-H+ countertransport

What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?

Number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane

Glucose is reabsorbed _______

All of the above are correct

Glucose is reabsorbed _____

by secondary active transport, by facilitated diffusion, through transmembrane proteins, into the peritubular capillaries

Glucose reabsorption occurs in the _______

proximal convoluted tubule

Glucose is transported ________

through the basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion

As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the ________

distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased

At which concentration of glucose carriers was the glucose concentration reduced to zero?

400

When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______

glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed

ADH is produced in the _______

hypothalamus

The secretion of aldosterone is directly stimulated by ______

angiotensin II

The secretion of ADH is directly stimulated by ______

a change in body fluid osmolarity

Which of the following are hormones?

ADH, and aldosterone

The addition of aldosterone

decreased the urine volume

With ADH added but in the absences of aldosterone, ______

the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased

The urine was the most concnetrated ____

with both ADH and aldosterone

Which hormone had the greater effect on urine volume?

ADH

Which of the following is NOT one of the body's physiological chemical buffering systems?

hydrochloride

Which of the following has the greatest capacity for pH change in the body

renal system

Respiratory alkalosis is a result of _____

too little carbon dioxide in the blood

Hyperventilation is defined as _____

an increase in the rate and depth of breathing

What is the normal range for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood?

35-45 mm HG

Hyperventilation can result in _______

too little carbon dioxide in the blood

Respiratory alkalosis is characterized by a blood pH ______

greater than 7.45

Why was the breath held after the second hyperventilation?

to retain carbon dioxide

The formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide is catalyzed by ______

carbonic anhydrase

Too much carbon dioxide in the blood can be the result of ______

emphysema

When does rebreathing stimulate hypoventilation?

Carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood with either

Respiratory acidosis is a result of ____

an increase in the H+ in the blood

Respiratory acidosis can be a result of _____

asthma

Which of the following occurred during rebreathing?

carbon dioxide increased

Respiratory acidosis can be compensated for by _____

the kidneys

Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and blood pH are _______

inversely proportional to each other

How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances?

all of the above

How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances

by excreting H+, bicarbonate ion and by reabsorbing H+ and bicarbonate ion

Which of the following have the same effect on plasma pH/

reabsorption of bicarbonate and excretion of H+

The movement of fluid and solutes from the peritubular capillary to the renal tubule is reffered to as

tubular secretion

The nephron is responsible for maintaining ______

all of the above

The nephron is responsible for maintaining _____

fluid balance in the body, acid-base balance in the body, electrolyte balance in the body

The kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis by _____

conserving H+ and excreting bicarbonate ion

In uncompensated respiratory acidosis, the ____

carbon dioxide levels of the blood are elevated

When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was decreased, what changes occured in the urine?

H+ in the urine decreased and bicarbonate ion increased in the urine

At which partial pressure of carbon dioxide did respiratory acidosis occur?

60 mm Hg

Excessive diarrhea results in whcih of the following?

Loss of bicarbonate, metabolic acidosis

Ingestion of too much alcohol results in which of the follwoing?

gain of acid, metabolic acidosis

Which of the following does NOT result in metaboli alkalosis?

hyperventilation

Ketoacidosis is usually a result of _____

uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following?

excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system

Metabolic acidosis results in ____

hyperventilation

Which metabolic rate resulted in metabolic acidosis?

80 kcal/hr

Which of the following occurred when the metabolic rate was set to 20 kcal/hr?

metabolic alkalosis and hypoventilation

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