deep tendon reflex
An automatic motor response elicited by stimulating stretch receptors in subcutaneous tissues surrounding joints and tendons. The assessment is typically made by striking a tendon (e.g., Achilles, patellar, biceps, triceps, or brachioradialis tendons) with a weighted hammer. Brisk or hyperactive responses are seen in conditions such as hyperthyroidism, stroke, pre-eclampsia, or spastic disorders; diminished responses may be seen in patients with hypothyroidism, drug intoxication, and flaccid neuromuscular disorders, among others.
area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate
patient has eyes closed and both arms extended and supinated. If one arm drifts down and pronates, this may indicate a neurological problem
the quality of moving or acting in spasms
paralysis of one side of the body
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
paralysis of both arms and both legs
Patient may be seated or supine, the ankle is "jammed" into dorsiflexion and monitored for alternating dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (clonus). May be normal to have 2-3 clonic jerks, 3+ is positive and considered abnormal.
Flexion of the hip and knee when the neck is flexed; Sign of meningitis
Sign of meningitis; positive when the leg is fully bent at the hip and knee, and subsequent extension of the knee leads to pain
floppy muscles, decreased muscle tone, and decreased reflexes due to damage to the spinal nerves or brainstem motor neurons and the inability to get impulse to the muscles
doll's eye movement
Newborn babys have what is termed a doll's eye reflex (a normal response in newborns to keep the eyes stationary as the head is turned to the right or left). This reflex disappears as ocular fixation develops.
checks brainstem function, eyes move opposite of the way the head is turned
muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
symptoms of taking antipsychotic medications that include parkinsonism, dystonia and tremors, uncontrollable, involuntary, parkinsonian-like tremors and movements (disruption of the normal balance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and dopamine within the basal ganglia.).
any of the important motor nerves on each side of the central nervous system that run from the sensorimotor areas of the cortex through the brainstem to motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord
basal ganglia system
The basal ganglia functions w/cerebellum to make smooth, coordinated movement.
-The basal ganglia has inhibitory motion control and produces dopamine.
-The cerebellum has excitatory control and likely produces Ach
A complex motor system that coordinates movement, maintains equilibrium, and helps maintain posture. Receives information about the position of muscles and joints, the body's equilibrium, and what kind of motor messages are being sent from the cortex to the muscles.
Mild to moderate reduction in arousal (awakens) w/ limited response to the environment; falls asleep unless stimulated verbally or tactilely; answers questions w/ minimum response
Meningitis: swelling of meninges, layers of protective tissue around the brain
Kernig's Sign (1)
Brudzinski's Sign (2)
Both of these signs are thought to be caused by the irritation of motor nerve roots passing through inflamed meninges as the roots are brought under tension.
Neck Stiffness/Nuchal Rigidity
the ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts
infant startle response to sudden, intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back, throws back its head, and flings out its arms and legs.
a reflex in the newborn, which is elicited by placing a finger firmly in the infant's palm.
tonic neck reflex
when infant is supine and head turns to one side, the same arm and leg are extended, and the same arm and leg are flexed. this disappears after 3-4 months, and then the head is maintained at midline