Abnormally low blood oxygen saturation level.
Insufficient breathing volumes, resulting in increased levels of CO2 in the blood.
Rapid deep breathing, resulting in reduced levels of CO2 in the blood.
A single page of a polysomnogram, typically representing 30 seconds of data.
A cessation of breathing, characterized by an absence of both airflow and respiratory effort.
An interruption of sleep continuity, identified by an abrupt shift in EEG fraquency.
A cessation of airflow detected at the nose and mouth occurring for 10 seconds or longer.
A transient appearance of alpha activity during sleep.
Artifact caused by electodes which momentarily lift away from the skin.
Tonic and Phasic
REM sleeo is classified into what two categories?
Relatively low amplitude waves, with a notched, sawtooth appearance- common feature of REM sleep.
Short rhythmic waveform clusters of 12-14 Hz, often showing a waxing and waning appearance- a characteristic feature of stage 2 sleep.
A sharp negative wave, followed by a slower positive in stage 2 sleep.
sharp negative waves, usually within the theta frequency range- typically appearing during the latter part of stage 1 sleep.
A sequence of tests used to verify and document appropriate amplifier and pen responses to carious maneuvers performed by the patient prior to a sleep study.
A device containing two dissimilar metals, which generate an electrical signal in response to temperature variations.
Rise Time Constant
The time requires for a pen to reach 63% of signal amplitude when a DC calibration signal is applied to an amplifier
A device used to limit the passage of electrical current.
Opposition to an electrical current.
Signal obtained by comparing voltages from an exploring electrode to a relatively inactive location.
An instrument used fro measuring electrical resistance.
Ratio of output voltage to input voltage, amplifier sensitivity.
Stray current generated by the proximity of electrical power cords to abjoining cables or the polygraph chassis.
A method of measuring changes in body (or body parts) circumference.
An undesirable electrical pathway between two separate ground connections, resulting in possible hazard to a patient.
An electronic device designied to reduce or eliminate unwanted frequencies from passing through as amplifier.
Fall Time Constant
The time required for a pen to descend to 37% of signal amplitude when a DC calibration signal is applied to an amplifier.
Recording of electrical activity generated by the brain.
Any material capable of transmitting an electrical current.
A ground connection shared by more than one instrument or appliance.
An amplifier component used for storing an electrical charge.
Signals obtained by comparing voltages from two exploring electrodes.
Bio- electrical potentials
Voltages originating from living tissues.
Undesirable variations in baseline during a recording, usually caused by sweat or movement.
Reduction in size or amplitude of a signal.
Refers to the response time of the polygraph pens in relation to high and low frequency filter settings during a calibration procedure.
Measurement of frequency, number of cycles per second.
The number of pen deflections or '' waves'' recorded within the span of one second.
What is the recommendes procedure for electrode application to record eye movements?
One electrode is 1 cm above and slightly lateral the auter canthus, while the other electrode is 1 cm below and slightly lateral the auter canthus of the eye.
What term is linked with patients experiencing evening and nocturnal hallucinations associated with dementia?
What initial effect does administering supplement oxugen have on the OSA patient?
A significant increase in apnea duration with associated hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.
Severe oxygen desaturation and hypercapnia
A complaint of morning headaches associated with severe sleep apnea is a result of what?
Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
Known as the pacemaker for mammalian circadian rhythms.
Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI)
The number of apneas (obstructive, central, mixed) plus hypopneas per hour of total sleep time as determined by all-night polysomnography.
A function that expresses the frequency of eye movements per unit time during sleep stage REM.
False Sweating and panting is seen in NREM, but absent in REM.
Thermoregulatory responses such as sweating and panting are noted in REM, but are absent in NREM sleep. TRUE or FALSE
Term used for a brief superimposition of EEG alpha activity on sleep activies during a stage of sleep.
REM occupies what percentage of sleep in the neonate at term?
An epoch that does not meet the criteria for Active Sleep or Quiet Sleep is called what?
How many sleep- onset REM episodes in a series of 5 naps are diagnostic for Narcolepsy?
In order to assess the occurrence of REM sleep during the MSLT, the test should continue for how long after the first epoch of sleep?
How many min after lights-out (if no sleep is seen) is the standard MSLT terminated?
The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)
This sleep test is used in the assessment and diagnosis of disorders of excessive somnolence and to evaluate daytime sleepiness in relation to various therapeutic or experimental manipulations.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
The degree to which an amplifier will reject a common mode signal is expressed as what?
Nasion, Inion, Right Preauricular, and Left Preauricular
List the 4 skull landmarks used in the 10-20 System of Electrode Placement.
How are eye movements recorded?
There is a small electropotential difference between the cornea (+) and the retina (-). An electrode closest to the cornea will register a (+) deflection; electrode closed to the retina will register a (-) deflection.
Alpha activity in stage REM sleep is how many cps slower than during wakefulness?
1-2 cps slower
This stage requires at least 20% but not more than 50% of the epoch to consist of waves of 2 cps or slower with amplitudes greater then 75 u V from peak to peak?
The total duration of this waveform should exceed 0.5 sec with a well-delineated negative sharp wave followed by a positive component.
Vertex Sharp Wave
The amplitude of this waveform is occasionally as high as 200 u V.
What sleep stage: low voltage, mixed frequency EEG with a prominence of activity in the 2-7 cps range, slow eye movements tends to be relatively short, ranging from 1-7 minutes.
Signal obtained from a pair of electrodes or sensors.
Flow of electrical force along a conductor.
Short Circuit, Leakage Current, Ground Loop
Three pontential sources of stray electrical current.
Jactatio Capitis Nocturna
Infant breathing pattern that alternates regular breathing with 5-10 seconds of apnea.
Trace Alternant pattern is associated with what stage of sleep in the infant?
At what age do sleep spindles appear in the infant?
They appear at 4 weeks of age , develop rapidly through 8 weeks of age, and clearly characterize NREM sleep by 3 months of age.
Observed behaviors and movement patterns
Other than the EEG recording, what else is used to differentiate the sleep stages in the infant?
Periodic breathing in the normal infant most commonly occurs in Active or Quiet Sleep. REM sleep in the infant is known as?
NREM sleep in the infant is known as?
During REM sleep, inhibition of thermoregulartory mechanisms leads to a state of what?
A Sleep disturbance that lasts one to several nights in an isolated period and is most often caused by an acute situational stress or travel across multiple time zones.
A patient can become the Pathway of least resistance, and therefore susceptible to shock when occurs?
When not all the equipment attached to the patient is connected to a common ground.
of alternating sleep cycles has a period of 30-70 minutes during infancy. Less than 24 hours.
Paradoxical breathing is noted in neonates or infants.
Are newborns and infants obligatory " nasal breathers" or "mouth breathers"?
Intiation and Maintenance of Wakefulness
The reticular activating system is essential.
consist of EDS, Cataplexy, Sleep Paralysis, Hypnagogic Hallucinations
Aggravate Periodic Limp Movements of Sleep.