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Clinical Pathology

Evaluation of patient conditions by way of analysis of body fluids, tissue samples, or necropsy

Aspects of pathology

Hematology
Clinical Chemistry
Urinalysis
Fecal Analysis
Biopsy
Histology

Hematology

study of blood cells (R,W,P)
Use anticoagulant so platelets won't clot - then called plasma

Clinical Chemistry

Chemical enzymes, molecules in blood
looks at fluid part of blood - not cells
Use serum - part of blood that doesn't have the coagulation factors
allows to look at enzymes that come from liver, ie. abnormal - something wrong with the liver

Urinalysis

blood, protein, glucose (indication of kidney disease)

Feces

parasites
puppy/kitten with diarrhea - step 1. fecal sample

Biopsy

taking SOLID tissue
Skin biopsy - epi, dermis, subcutaneous
needle biopsy (aspiration) - only tiny amount taken - gets smooshed in needle
punch biopsy - takes chunk - used for skin
wedge biopsy - take section
make slide of tissue - HISTOLOGY

Cytology

anything liquid - looking at for pathology
abdominocentesis - ascites - looking at liquid

Hematology

Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelet cell (no nucleus in dogs and cats)
Erythrocyte indices - way to measure RBC - how big? shape? how much hemoglobin?
RBC have nucleus in birds and reptiles
Nucleated RBC in dogs and cats = something wrong - regenerative anemia?? baby red blood cells have nucleus

Clinical Chemistry 2

Serum vs plasma - we know this
Electrolytes - Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Phosphorous (P) = can use in diagnosis, ie. increased levels of K involved in contraction of the the heart muscle, - used in euthanization fluid.
Injectable bottle with black cap means it can kill you, ie. potassium.
Exocrine - delivers enzymes or chemical compounds to another part of the body via a duct. many times it's an enzyme

Endocrine Serology

Has to do with serum
Triaditis (gallbladder, duodenum, stomach)
Thyroid how to test - thyroid hormone
Adrenal gland - produces hormones that can be measured
Endocrine pancreas - insulin

Serum qualities

Serum should be transparent
lipemic - white - lipids
hemolyzed - red/pink - it was shaken
icteric - yellow serum

Test tubes

red top = no anticoagulant - serum - clinical chemistry
lavender top = anticoagulant= plasma - hematology

Clinical correlates

Cyanosis - tissues appear blue - see in gums first - indication of lack of oxygen
Icterus - Correlates with liver disease or red blood cells breaking - hemolytic anemia - in dogs - autoimmune

Hypersensitivity and blood smears

hypersensitivity - allergic = tons of mast cells
eosinophil - has histomines

MItotic figures

too many - cancer
if you see cells dividing abnormally and rapid - cancer

Renal histopathology

working unit of kidney = nephron
microtome - makes slices of kidney - falls into bowl of water and scooped up because so thin - can't touch

Biopsy

Punch
Wedge - Portosystemic Shunt
Needle

Urinalysis

Reagents - chemical that reacts to one specific chemical or molecule - strip - dipsticks
Color, odor, turbidity, amount
Glucosuria (blue square), crystalluria (struvite), proteinuria, hemoglobinuria
Anuria - kidney shut down = no urine

Urinalysis (Specific Gravity)

SG = molecular density of liquid compared to distilled water. 1.000 = distilled water
Dilute urine = SG close to distilled water
Concentrated urine = not a lot fluid high SG

PUPD

kidney disease - become dehydrated
SQ fluid for chronic
IV for acute

Fecal Analysis

Color (gray - pancreatic disease - stool chart - lol)
Blood, parasites (most often looking for this), fat (enteric - pancreatic disease)
Smear (putting feces on slide) and sediment (centrifuge)
Fecal float - add feces to fluid with high SG - parasite eggs will float to top

Necropsy

metastatic lung cancer - white under blood
heartworm - live in PA but travel to heart if bad

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