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Taxonomy

practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships

Binomial Nomenclature

Linnaeus's naming system which states that each organism is given a 2 part name

Species

A group of individual plants that are fundamentally the same, separated from other closely-related species by "distinct" morphological differences

Variety

1) a botanical rank below species; a natural population of plants within a species displaying marked differences that are transmitted by seed, as in naturally occuring. (i.e., inherited)

Cultivar

1) A variety that is developed by botanical breeders, as in not naturally occurring 2) An assemblage of plants that has been selected for particular attribute(s) and that is clearly distinct, uniform, and stable in its characteristics and that - when propagated by appropriate means - retains those characteristics

Bryophyte

Nonvascular plants. Includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (Doesn't bear seeds)

Spermatophyte

any of the Spermatophyta, a primary division or group of plants comprising those that bear seeds.

Angiosperm

plants having seeds enclosed by an ovary/fruit (Flowering Plants)

Gymnosperm

plants having seeds not enclosed in an ovary a.k.a. naked seeds (Non-Flowering Plants)

Monocot

has one cotyledon (one seed leaf), parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3

Dicot

angiosperm with two cotyledons (two seed leaves) inside its seed, flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles in rings

Annual

Plant lives through one growing season (ex. marigold)

Biennial

plant lives through two growing season. often requires an environmental treatment i.e. vernalization (ex. sugar beet)

Perennial

Persist year round; woody or non-woody; evergreen or deciduous

Monocarp

a plant with long vegetative cycle that bears fruit once and then dies

Herb

A plant lacking a permanent woody stem. Many are flowering gardan plants often having culinary or medicinal uses. Leaves and stems die down to soil level at the end of growing season.

Shrub

A woody plant that is smaller than a tree and generally has several separate stems rather than a single trunk.

Tree

a tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct elevated crown

Fruit

A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.

Drupe

a fruit with one hard stony seed. ex. Peach (Simple & Fleshy)

Berry

a fruit with an inner pulp. ex. tomato (Simple & Fleshy)

Pome

a fruit with a pitted interior with stone. ex. apple (Simple & Fleshy)

Hesperidium

a fruit with a leathery skin with oils (Type of Berry). ex. orange (Simple & Fleshy)

Pepo

a fruit with a hard relatively thick outer rind (Type of Berry) ex. watermelon (Simple & Fleshy)

Dehiscent

Simple dry fruits that split open and discharge their seeds. ex. Follicle- Milkweed (Single Seam Split), Legume- Peanuts, Beans, & Peas (Two Seam Split), & Silique- ex. mustard & wild radish (Split modified carpel expose septum bearing seeds)

Indehiscent

Simple dry fruits that don't split open or discharge their seeds.

Pod

Vessel that contains the seeds of a plant. In some cases edible when prematurely harvested like Okra.

Samara

develop from a single ovary and the pericarp is winged. (Simple, Dry, & Indehiscent)

Genus

a group of plants containing one or more species. The species have more characteristics in common with each other than they do with species of other genera in the same family

Pericarp

the ripened and variously modified walls of a plant ovary (fruit)

Kingdoms (5 Names & Examples)

1) Animalia (Insects, Fish, Birds, Mammals, & Reptiles) 2) Plantae (Multicellular Algae, Trees, Flowers, Moss, & Ferns) 3) Monera (Bacteria) 4) Protista (Amoeba & Unicellular Algae) 5) Fungi (Mushrooms, Mold, & Yeast)

Dicot Stems Cross Section (Draw & Label)

Include the epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle, vascular cambium, xylem, phloem, and pith (where applicable)

Monocot Stems Cross Section (Draw & Label)

Include the epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle, vascular cambium, xylem, phloem, and pith (where applicable)

Leaf Cross Section (Draw & Label)

including the cuticle, stomata, guard cells, epidermis, palisade parenchyma, spongy parenchyma, air spaces, vascular bundles, hypodermis and resin ducts (where applicable) Explain Functions performed by each structure

Needle Cross Section (Draw & Label)

including the cuticle, stomata, guard cells, epidermis, palisade parenchyma, spongy parenchyma, air spaces, vascular bundles, hypodermis and resin ducts (where applicable) Explain Functions performed by each structure

Taproot System

Structure, advantages, and disadvantages of each. Examples of plants with each type of root system.

Fibrous Root System

Structure, advantages, and disadvantages of each. Examples of plants with each type of root system.

Fine Root (Draw & Label Both Longitudinal and Cross Sectional Pics)

Include root cap, apical meristem, zone of elongation, zone of maturation, zone of differentiation, epidermis, root hair, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular cylinder. Know the roles played by cell layer/structure.

Simple Fruit

a fruit derived from a single carpel or pistil having one or many seeds within a pericarp. Includes both dry (Pecans, Macadamia Nuts, & Beans) and fleshy fruits (Peaches, Tomatoes, & Oranges).

Aggregate Fruit

a fruit derived from a single flower with many pistils. ex. strawberries

Multiple Fruit

a fruit derived from clusters of many individual flowers in a single inflorescense (a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches). ex. pineapple

Bulb

A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that are used as food storage organs by a dormant plant. ex. onions

Tuber

Tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store nutrients. They are used by plants to overwinter and regrow the next year and as a means of asexual reproduction. Two different groups of tubers are: stem tubers (ex. potato), and root tubers (ex. sweet potato).

Imperfect Flower

A unisexual flower missing either stamens or carpels.

Dioecious

Imperfect flower where male and female reproductive parts are present in separate flowers on the same plant

Monoecious

Imperfect flower where male and female reproductive parts are on separate plants

Kingdoms of Life

Animalia (Bugs/Fish/Mammals), Plantae (Trees/Bushes/Green Algae), Fungi (Yeasts/Molds/Mushrooms), Protista (Ciliates/Corals), Monera (Bacteria/Archaea)

Stigma

the apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil

Style

the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma

Pistil

the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma

Ovary

the organ that bears the ovules of a flower

Ovule

a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant

Receptacle

enlarged tip of a stem that bears the floral parts

Sepal

outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing

Petal

A modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.

Anther

the part of the stamen that contains pollen

Filament

Part of stamen, stalk that supports an anther.

Stamen

The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.

Seed

a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa

Endocarp

inside layer of the pericarp (or fruit), which directly surrounds the seeds. It may be membranous as in citrus where it is the only part consumed, or thick and hard as in the stone fruits of the family Rosaceae such as peaches, cherries, plums, and apricots.

Mesocarp

the succulent and fleshy middle layer of the pericarp of drupaceous fruit, between the exocarp and the endocarp; it is usually the part of the fruit that is eaten. This term may also refer to any fruit that is fleshy throughout. In a hesperidium, the mesocarp is also referred to as albedo or pith because of its soft fiber (i.e. "the white part")

Exocarp

the outermost layer of the pericarp (or fruit). The exocarp forms the tough outer skin of the fruit, which bears oil glands and pigments. The rind in citrus fruit

Pericarp

the ripened and variously modified walls of a plant ovary

Cell Wall

made of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin this is what distinguishes animal and plant cells (animal cell have no walls) as the rest of the cell swells with water, it presses against the cell wall, creating positive pressure (called turgor) - that gives plants their rigidity. When cells begin to lose water, this turgor pressure drops and the plant wilts.

Cell Membrane

formed of lipids (i.e. fats/oils) and associated proteins - it creates a barrier between the cell and the outside world. All materials that pass between the inside and outside of the cell must cross this barrier, generally through specific channels, pores or pumps. The membrane functions like a gatekeeper - bringing in things the cell needs and restricting those it doesn't.

Lipid Bilayer

structure of membrane, two sheets of lipid molcules with tails pointed inward, proteins embedded in bilayer (serve as channels) along with carbohydrate molecules (id markers - recognition)

Integral Membrane Proteins

Proteins are amphipathic (exhibit affinity for the membrane bilayer) / Embedded into the membrane bilayer / Hydrophilic regions on either side of protein / Extremely difficult to isolate = Usually need to purify in detergent

Nucleus

contains the DNA in the form of chromosomes DNA contains the instructions for making proteins - which are the building blocks of the cell and function as enzymes catalyzing all cellular reactions When a cell divides, this DNA material is fully replicated -giving two sets of chromosomes, one for each daughter cell Normally, portions of it are "read" as needed and translated into RNA - which is the template for building proteins

Chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

Mitochondria

the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

Endoplasmic Reticulum

a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another

Golgi Apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

Plasmodesmata

Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.

Vacuole

cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

Ribosomes

non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

parenchyma

has thin-walled cells. It is found throughout the plant in fleshy, relatively soft tissues. Examples include meristems, the leaf mesophyll, and the cortex of roots.

collenchyma

has elongated cells with thickened walls. It is found mainly found under the epidermis in young stems and in the large veins of leaves.

schlerenchyma

tissue consists of cells with highly thickened walls that are dead at maturity. It is generally found in the vasucular bundles of stems and as schlerids, individual bunches of cells that give pears and apple cores their gritty texture

xylem

Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.

phloem

Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant

meristem

undifferentiated tissue from which new cells are formed, as at the tip of a stem or root

crown

the upper branches and leaves of a tree

stolon

a horizontal branch from the base of plant that produces new plants from buds at its tips

rhizome

a horizontal plant stem with shoots above and roots below serving as a reproductive structure

tuberous root

is a modified lateral root, enlarged to function as a storage organ. The enlarged area of the root-tuber, or storage root, can be produced at the end, or middle of a root, or involve the entire root. It is thus different in origin but similar in function and appearance to a stem tuber.

stalk

the long part of the plant which supports the seed carrying parts

culm

A stem which supports the inflorescence

bud scales

modified leaves that protect dormant buds

bract

a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis, or cone scale. Bracts are often (but not always) different from foliage leaves, for example being smaller, larger, or of a different color or texture. Some bracts are brightly colored and serve the function of attracting pollinators, either in concert with or instead of the flower itself. An excellent example of this latter type of bract occurs in the Poinsettia plant (Euphorbia pulcherrima), which has small green flowers, surrounded by large scarlet bracts.

sepal

in most flowers are green and lie under the more conspicuous petals. As a collective unit the sepals form a calyx, whereas the collection of petals is called the corolla. Together, these two structures are known as the perianth of the flower. Serve a function similar to bracts, but tend to be less durable. Plants can have both bracts and sepals.

cotyledon

A "seed leaf" which develops as a part of the seed. It provides nutrients to the developing seedling and eventually becomes the first leaf of the plant.

lamina

Leaf Blade

petiole

attaches lamina to stem

stipule

an outgrowth of the lower zone of a young leaf, part of the leaf base. Not all leaves will have stipules.

sheath (in monocot leaves)

the leaf base when it forms a vertical coating surrounding the stem.

fascicle

a close cluster of flowers or leaves

radicle

first organ to emerge from the germinating seed

root hairs

tiny hair-like extensions that increase the surface area of the root allowing it to absorbs more water and nurtients

compound leaf

a leaf composed of a number of leaflets on a common stalk, the leaflets themselves may be compound.

leaflet

A leaflet may resemble an entire leaf, but it is not borne on a stem as a leaf is, but rather on a vein of the whole lea

pinnate

the leaflets arranged along the main or mid-vein. ex. Mahogany Tree Leaves

palmate

the leaflets radiating from the end of the petiole, like fingers off the palm of a hand. ex. Cannabis

trifoliate

a pinnate leaf with just three leaflets. ex. Clover

tap root

central axis from which lateral rots emerge. Seen in dicots and gymnosperms. Once damaged, taproot will not regrow. In some cases the taproot maybe serve as a storage organ, as in carrot.

fibrous root

The radical dies/stops growing shortly after germination and a mass of lateral roots proliferate. Such root systems tend to be shallow and densely branched.

vascular cambium

lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time

effect of large bodies of water on climate

Large bodies of water store heat in fall and take a while to warm up in the spring.

thermal belt

. Colder and heavier air occurring at higher altitudes moves down and pushes the warmer and lighter air upward. This air convection leaves the higher band of land warmer. This thermal belt is warm and permits the culture of frost-sensitive crops on certain parts of slopes in areas that are normally too cold for growing crops.

transpiration

Loss of water from the leaves. Wind blows away the layer of moist air surrounding plant leaves and increases the driving force for water loss.

photon

a tiny particle or packet of light energy

PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation)

designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. This spectral region corresponds more or less with the range of light visible to the human eye

etiolation

occurs when plants are grown in either partial or complete absence of light, and is characterized by long, weak stems; smaller, sparser leaves due to longer internodes; and a pale yellow color. This is a mechanism to increase the likeliness that a plant will reach a light source, often from under leaf litter or underneath shade from competing plants.

photoperiod

The duration of an organism's daily exposure to light, considered especially with regard to the effect of the exposure on growth and development

sand

.05mm-2mm

silt

.002mm-.05mm

clay

less then .002mm

cation exchange capacity

the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of cations between the soil and the soil solution. CEC is used as a measure of fertility, nutrient retention capacity, and the capacity to protect groundwater from cation contamination

ectomycorrhizae

A type of mycorrhizae in which the mycelium forms a dense sheath, or mantle, over the surface of the root. Hyphae extend from the mantle into the soil, greatly increasing the surface area for water and mineral absorption.

endomycorrhizae

A type of mycorrhizae that, unlike ectomycorrhizae, do not have a dense mantle ensheathing the root. Instead, microscopic fungal hyphae extend from the root into the soil.

rhizobia

any of several rod-shaped bacteria of the genus rhizobium found as symbiotic nitrogen fixers in nodules on the roots of legumes

pH

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

Short-day plants

flower when day is shorter than a critical value (can't flower under continuous light); fall and/or spring

Long-day plants

flower when day is longer than a certain value; flower summer

Day-neutral plants

flower regardless of light duration

Compostion of air

78.08% Nitrogen, 20.95% Oxygen, .038% Carbon Dioxide.

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