# Algebra Chapter 2 Vocab

## 34 terms

### Absolute Value

the distance a number is away from zero

### Counterexample

Any example that proves a statement false

### Dependent Variable

A variable that provides the output values of a function (goes on the y-axis)

### Independent Variable

A variable that provides the input values of a function (goes on the x-axis)

### Equation

A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign

### Expression

A mathematical sentence composed of numbers, variables, and/or operations. Does NOT have an equal sign.

### Function

A relation that assigns exactly one output for each input.

### Natural Numbers

Counting Numbers: 1,2,3,4, etc.

### Whole Numbers

Natural numbers AND 0. 0,1,2,3...

### Integers

Whole numbers and their opposites: -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3...

### Rational Numbers

Numbers that can be written as a fraction of integer/integer. As a decimal, a rational number ends or repeats. Examples: 1/3, -2.5, 16

### Irrational Numbers

Numbers that never end or repeat when written as a decimal. Examples: pi, the square root of 2...

### Real Number

any number that is rational OR irrational

### Measures of central tendency

Mean, Median, and Mode. They are used to organize, summarize, and find the "center" of data.

### Mean

The sum of the numbers divided by the number of terms

### Median

The middle of a set of data that is ordered from least to greatest.

### Mode

The data item that occurs the most often

### Range

The difference between the highest and lowest data terms.

The opposite of a number

### Coefficient

A number that multiplies a variable. For example, the coefficient of -5x is -5.

### Complement of an Event

All possible outcomes that are NOT in the event.

### Constant

A number that has no variable

### Dependent Events

Two events in which the occurrence of one event affects the probability of the second event.

### Independent Events

Two events in which the occurrence of one event does not affect the probability of the second event.

### Distributive Property

a(b + c) = ab + ac
a(b - c) = ab - ac

### Theoretical Probability

In theory, the probability that an event SHOULD happen. It is the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes if all outcomes have the same chance of happening.

### Experimental Probability

In an experiment, what DOES happen... The ratio of the number of times that an event actually happens to the number of times that the experiment is done.

### Term

a number, a variable, or the product of number(s) and variable(s). Example: 5, y, -3x

### Like Terms

terms that have the same variable and the same power

### Multiplicative Inverse

reciprocal
Example: the multiplicative inverse of 3/2 is -2/3

### Odds

a ratio of the favorable outcomes to the unfavorable outcomes for an event

### Probability

how likely it is that an event will occur
Probability is formally written as P(event)

### Reciprocal

Multiplicative Inverse
When you multiply a number and its reciprocal, you get 1.

### Sample Space

All possible outcomes of an event
Example: When tossing two coins, the sample space is HH, HT, TH, and TT.

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