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Black Hand

Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society founded in 1911. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.

Constription

Forced recruitment of civilians into the army to meet the needs of war.

Archduke France Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.

Isolationism

Not becoming involved in global or regional events.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

German leader dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.

V.I. Lenin

Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.

League of Nations

Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations.

Lusitania

Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

Nicholas II

the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.

Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand

Treaty of Brest-Litvosk

Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.

Treaty of Versailles

Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)

Battle of Verdun

1916 German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.

Triple Entente

1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.

Wilson's Fourteen Points

President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.

Zimmerman Telegram

German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.

Bolsheviks

"Majority group"

Mensheviks

"Minority group"

Mir

Peasant village assembly responsible to the government.

Anschluss

The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.

Atlantic Charter

August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.

Casablanca Conference

Called by the Allies in 1943 to discuss strategy against Germany. Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers. Also called for an invasion of Italy and Sicily by British and American troops to ease the pressure on Russia.

Neville Chamberlain

(1937-1940; gullible British Prime Minister; at the Munich Conference he declared he had secured "peace for our time" He declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland. Forced to resign in 1940 after the German invasion of France.

Winston Churchill

1874-1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech in 1946; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out in the election of 1945.

D-Day

June 6, 1944; Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history's greatest naval invasion.

Battle of Stalingrad

Turning point for Germany in the war. From July 1942 to January 1943 after initial success the Russians recaptured the city.

Lebensaum

Room to move. Phrase used by Hitler to justify invasion of other countries. First espoused in Mein Kampf.

Lend-Lease Program

In 1941, the US lent money and resources to the European states to help reconstruction.

Maginot Line

Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.

Munich Conference

1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.

Potsdam Conference

Brought forward many differences over east Europe; postwar conference in July of 1945; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.

Rome-Berlin Axis

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact

Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war; August 1939. Was supposed to last 10 years, but Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.

Joseph Stalin

Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.

Sudetenland

Hitler wanted German speaking people in West Czech; this would be given to Germany.

Teheran Conference

Meeting in 1943; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.

Yalta Conference

On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.

Brezhnev Doctrine

Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.

Brinkmanship

International relations involving the deliberate creation of a risk of war to apply pressure on the other party.

Containment

Conceived by George Kennan as an attempt to contain communism in areas already occupied by the Red Army. Became the main goal of the Truman Doctrine.

Council of Europe

Brought about by the Marshall Plan in 1948 as an attempt to evolve into a Parliament yet became only a multinational debating society.

Charles De Gaulle

Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic. Came back to lead the Fifth Republic in 1959.

Hungarian Revolution

1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.

European Free Trade Association

Founded in 1960 to create a customs union and trading bloc .

Iron Curtain Speech

March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.

Nikita Khrushchev

Russian premier after Stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations.

Marshall Plan

U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin.

Perestroika

Economic restructuring by Gorbachev

Glasnost

A newfound openness of the Soviet's government and media.

Restalinization

Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.

Cairo Conference

Roosevelt, Churchill, & Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo, Egypt.
Decision was Korea to be independent at war's end and Taiwan to be returned to China from Japan.

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