← EURO CH 15 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Conquistador Spanish for "conqueror"; Spanish solider-explorers, such as Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, who sought to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown. Caravel A small, maneuverable, three-mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 15th century that gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade. Ptolemy's Geography A second-century C.E. work that synthesized the classical knowledge of geography and introduced the concepts of longitude and latitude. Reintroduced to Europeans in 1410 by Arab scholars, its ideas allowed cartographers to create more accurate maps. Treaty of Todesillas The 1494 agreement giving Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east. Mexica Empire Also known as the Aztec Empire. A large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology. Inca Empire The vast and sophisticated Peruvian empire centered at the capital city of Cuzco that was at its peak from 1438 until 1532. Viceroyalties The name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, new Granada, and La Plata. Encomienda System A system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Natives; it was a disguised form of slavery. Columbian Exchange The exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds. Asian Sea Trade Network Web of interconnected trade in Africa and Asia prior to the arrival of Europeans. It was divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks. Marco Polo Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade. Zheng He An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. Christopher Columbus Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World in 1492; initiated European discoveries in the Americas. Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. Prince Henry the Navigator Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire. Astrolabe An instrument, developed by Muslim navigators in the twelfth century, that allowed mariners to plot their latitude by determining the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies. Nocturnal Instrument used to tell the time of night. Sternpost Rudder Steering device attached to the stern of a ship. Bartholomew Diaz Portuguese explorer. He was the first European to reach the southern tip of Africa in 1488. Cape of Good Hope Southern tip of the African continent; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India. Magnetic Compass Chinese invention that allowed sailors to determine their position and direction at sea. Amerigo Vespucci The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a new world. America is named after him. Pedro Cabral Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil. Ferdinand Magellan Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim Philippines. Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador who conquered Mexico. Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas and founded the city of Lima. Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish missionary devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. Mestizos People of mixed European and Native American ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system. Age of Discovery Time in European history that lasted from 1450 to 1650.