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Which epoch has been called the Ice Age?

Pleistocene

What happened to the climate in Africa during glacial periods?

More arid, rainfall increased

What was found at Schoeningen that challenged some assumptions about the hunting capabilities of premodern humans?

Long wooden spears

Have Neanderthal fossils been found in Africa?

No

How long ago did Neanderthals first appear?

500,000 ya

How does Neanderthal brain size compare to modern humans?

Homo sapiens brain size b/w 1,300-1,400 cm3, Neanderthals average 1,520 cm3

What are the characteristics of the La Chapelle-aux Saints skeleton?

A nearly complete skeleton, buried in a shallow grave in a flexed position, found with several fragments of nonhuman long bones had been placed over the head, and over them, a bison leg, there were flint tools and broken animal bones. He was an adult male skeleton with osteoarthritis in the spine.

What does Neanderthal art consist of?

Uncommon, usually small, probably with some sort of personally nature. No cave art.

The first evidence of burial of the dead is associated with what genus/species?

Homo neanderthalensis

What does the complete replacement model say about the transition from premodern to modern Homo sapiens?

Origin of modern humans in Africa and later replacement of populations in Europe and Asia.

Know the basic points of the models described in your text concerning the origin of modern Homo sapiens.

Partial replacement model: Suggest modern humans originated in Africa and as populations grew the migrated into Europe in Asia, integrating with those populations.
Regional Continuity Model: Denies that the earliest H. sapiens populations originated exclusively in Africa, and asserts that significant levels of gene flow (migration) between various geographically dispersed premodern populations were extremely likely throughout the Pleistocene.

According to the Regional Continuity Model, what prevented local populations of premodern Homo sapiens from becoming separate species?

Through gene flow and natural selection

Although there is not complete agreement, current evidence indicates that the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils are from which geographical location?

Omo Kibish, southern Ethiopia

The analysis of the Herto remains indicates what about their relationship to groups of modern Homo sapiens?

Cranial capacity within the range of H. sapiens, not nearly modern, supports an African origin of modern humans

Which site in Western Europe may offer evidence for genetic continuity between Neanderthals and modern humans?

Alorigo do Logar Velho

A newly published controversial date for the Lake Mungo remains indicates they may be as old as?

60,000 ya

What are the unusual aspects of the skeletal remains of Homo floresiensis?

Small bodies 3ft, and small brained 417 cm3

What are Lascaux and Altamira famous for?

Cave art

Where has the oldest evidence of human culture been found, as exemplified by jewelry objects?

24,000 ya, Sungir near Moscow

How long and by whom have people been categorized on the basis of skin color?

Egyptians 1350 BC

What is the false belief that there is a relationship between physical traits and certain behavioral traits such as intelligence and morality called?

Biological determinism

What is the term for the philosophy of "race improvement" through the forced sterilization of some groups and the encouraged reproduction of others?

Eugenics

Who was responsible for popularizing eugenics among 19th century Europeans?

Francis Galton

In its most common biological usage, the term race refers to what?

Polytpic traits, skin color

How easy is it to measure IQ?

Difficult, because it changes throughout a persons life time, and the averages overlap.

What are the significant characteristics of lactose intolerance according to your text?

During adolescence, lactase production switches off, causing lactose to ferment in the large intestines.

What does Acclimatization refer to?

Physiological response to environmental conditions

What substance contributes most to skin color?

Melanin

What causes rickets?

Vitamin D deficiency

Studies have shown that UV radiation rapidly depletes what substance that plays a crucial role in neural tube development of the embryo?

folate

What are the significant characteristics of sweating according to your text?

Sweat glands make it possible to lose heat at the body surface through evaporative cooling, reduced amounts of skin hair, and vasodilation

What is vasodilation?

Capillaries near the skins surface widen to permit increased blood flow to the skin

What is Bergmann's Rule?

Concerns the relationship of body mass or volume to surface area.

What are the stresses imposed by living at high altitudes?

Hypoxia and reproduction problems

What is a pandemic?

An infectious disease epidemic that spreads rapidly throughout a region or world-wide

At birth, the human brain is approximately what percent of its adult size?

25 percent

The human brain reaches 95 percent of its adult size by what age?

10

What is Life History Theory?

Primatologist and other physical anthropologists view primate and human growth and development from an evolutionary perspective, with an interest in how natural selection has operated on the life cycle from conception to death.

In what groups of mammals is a the subadult life cycle phase found?

Humans, monkeys, and apes.

Which life cycle stage is unique to humans?

Postreproductive

Approximately how long do chimpanzees, gorillas, and women in foraging societies nurse their infants?

4 or 5 years

What does Wrangham and Peterson's comparisons of chimpanzee and bonobo societies stress?

Differences in agression in male and female dominate societies.

What does the fact that all living forms have DNA suggest about evolution and a common ancestor?

Human beings are a part of a continuum made up of biologically related species.

If we use the criteria of cell numbers, what is the dominant life form on the planet?

Bacteria

How much longer would Homo sapiens have to exist to match the time-span of Homo erectus?

A million years

What do we call the period during which humans began to domesticate plants and animals?

Neolithic

What is one of the earliest documented examples of humankind's appetite for lumber?

Cedars of Lebanon

How many mass extinctions have happened in the last 570 million years?

15

What is the one single challenge facing humanity to which all other problems can be tied?

Human population growth

According to your text, changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns around the world, due to global warming, will cause what?

Loss of agricultural lands due to desertification in some regions and flooding in others; increased human hunger, extinction of numerous plant and animal species; and altered patterns of infectious disease.

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