Anatomy and Physiology Male Reproductive Ch. 27

23 terms by ellenmeasley 

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sex cell

gametes; 1 male and 1 female= zygote

primary sex organs

testis, ovaries

diploid

46 chromosomes and is called a zygote

haploid

23 chromosomes and is the gamete

mesonephric (wolffian)

the duct in the embryo that forms the male gonads

paramesonephric (mullerian)

the duct in the embryo that forms the female gonads; the result of femal gonads growing is from the absence of androgens and not the presence of estrogen

genital tubercle

in male embryo forms the head of the penis; in female it forms the clitoris

urogenital folds

in male embryo forms the urethra and paraneal raphe; in the female it produces the labia minora

labialscrotal folds

in male it forms the scrotum; in females it form the labia majora

testicular artery

carries blood to the testes

countercurrent exchange system in testes

sperm do not produce in 37 degrees, so the cremaster and dartos muscle contract and descend to help with temperature; the warm blood from the artery diffuses to vein and makes the blood cooler for the testes

testis

covered by tunica albingea, contains seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced and is lined with germinal epithelium, which consist of germ cells that become to be sperm consist and sertoli cells, which protect germ cells and promote development; aslo has leydig cells which are responsible for testosterone production

blood-testis barrier

protects body from immune reaction because sperm are not genetically identical

semen

mixed with sperm in ejaculation that protects and nourishes sperm; contains carbs acid neutralizing bases

seminal vesicles

gland that has nourishing secretions

prostate gland

secretes to protect sperm

bulbourethral glands

gland that lubricates penial urethra prior to ejaculation

puberty

hypothalamus secrete GnRH to the anterior pituitary and tells it to secretes FSH and LH; FSH goes to sertoli cells adn they secrete androgen binding protien, while LH goes to leydig cells and they secrete testoterone; the ABP makes the testosterone stimulate spermatogenesis; as a negative feedback testosterone inhibits gonadotropins going to pituitary gland

mitosis

1 parent cell divideds into 2 genetically identical daughter cells

meiosis 1

results in 2 double stranded haploid cells

meiosis 2

results in 4 haploid daughter cells with single stranded chromosomes

spermatogenesis

the production of sperm; starts with stem cell called spermatogonia, these cell divide by mitosis into 2 daughter cells, type A remains near the wall and serve as a lifetime supply of stem cells, type B enlarges and becomes primary spermatocytes, these cells need protection because they are genetically different from the body, the BTB comes along behind it and closes in on it, spermatocytes goes under meiosis 1 and turns into secondary spermatocytes, then it goes under meiosis 2 and turns into 4 haploid cells called spermatids

spermatozoon tail

midpiece- has mitochondria around axoneme of flagellum , these produce ATP; principal piece- axoneme surrounded by fibers; endpiece is very narrow tip of flagellum

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