Ch. 27-29 Study Guide

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Covers the reproductive system, pregnancy and human development, and heredity

Seminiferous tubules

Where in the testes is sperm produced?

epididymus

Where sperm mature and gain motility

Interstitial cells

Which cells in the testes make testosterone?

Sustentocular cells; to prevent the immune system from attacking the sperm

Which cells make up the blood-testes barrier and why

where sperm mature and gain motility

What the epiydidmus is and its function

skeletal muscle and elevates the testes; smooth muscle and wrinkles the scrotal skill

What the cremaster and dartos muscle do

end of sperm, secretes enzymes to penetrate egg

Where the acrosome is and its function

capacitation

What the changes the sperm undergo before fertilization are

60% of sperm volume, protect sperm and provide nutrients

What the seminal vesicle produces

25-30% of semen, produces a milky substance

What the prostate produces

10% of semen volume (1/3) produce thick, clear mucus prior to ejaculation that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra

What the bulbourethral gland produces

the tip of the penis

What the glans penis is

keeps spongy urethra open during ejaculation

What the corpus spongiosum is and its function

main body of erectile tissue, for erection

What the corpora cavernosa are and their function

spermatogenesis

What the production of sperm is called

cell division to produce sperm and egg, haploid gametes

What meiosis is

haploid gametes; 2 consecutive divisions

What meiosis produces and how

meiosis I; meiosis II

What haploid and diploid are

crossing over

What occurs in prophase I

homonymous chromosomes line up

What occurs in prophase II

sister chromatids line up at mid-line

What occurs in metaphase II

homonymous chromosomes separate; sister chromatids separate

What occurs in anaphase I and anaphase II

genetic diversity and genetic recombination

What crossing over is and its purpose

small structure that has 23 chromosomes, nonfunctional

What a polar body is

metaphase II

What stage of meiosis the secondary oocyte stops in

after fertilization

When meiosis is completed in the secondary oocyte

formed by the duct of seminal vesicle and ampulla of ductus deferens; semen goes in

What the ejaculatory duct is and how it is formed

erectile tissue; sensory

What the clitoris is made of and its function

inner mucosa of uterine wall of inner lining; muscle layer of uterine

What the endometrium and myometrium are

supports, nourishes, and protects the developing fetus

What the placenta is

embryonic trophoblastic tissue and maternal endometrial tissue

What two structures contribute to the placenta formation

6-7 days after fertilization

When implantation occurs

deeper layer of the endometrium

What the stratum basalis is

upper layer of endometrium, one that sheds

What the stratum functionalis is

stratum basalis; stratum functionalis

Where the straight artery and spiral artery are in the uterus

right and left internal iliac arteries

Where the uterine artery arises from

4 cell division after zygote

What the cleavage stage is

16 or more cells after cleavage, solid mass

What a morula is

3-8 weeks; 9 weeks to birth

What an embryo and fetus are

anchors uterus to body (pelvic) wall; connects ovary to uterus

What the broad ligament and ovarian ligament are

three #21 chromosome ; age of mother (35+)

What Down's syndrome is and the major risk factor is

failure to separate chromosome or chormatids

What nondisjunction is

some antibodies, nutrients, enzymes, drugs, toxins, bacteria, alcohol

What substances can cross the placenta

umbilical veins

How substances are carried back to the fetus

do not directly mix, transport by active transport, diffusion

How the maternal and fetal circulation relate

foramen ovalae, ductus arteriosus, duct venosus

How blood in shunted in the fetus

oogenesis

What egg production is called

one egg and up to 3 polar bodies

What is produced during egg production

formation of the organs, 8th week

When organogenesis is copleted

tapered inferior neck of the uterus

What the cervix is

fibrous cord that guides the descent of the testes

What gubernaculum is

network of veins, cools arterial blood entering testes

What the pampiniform plexus is and its functions

protection and buoyancy; produced amniotic fliud

What amnion produces and why

1/3 less fat, produced 2-3 days before breast-milk

What colustrum is

failure of the testes to descend

What crytochidism is

the ability to produce surfactant

What premature infants often lack

distal portion of the uterine tube

Where fertilization occurs

surrounding structure around the egg-what the sperm has to penetrate

What the corona radiata is

fluid filled development of pre-embryo stage

What a blastocyst is

portion of blastocyte, contributes to placenta formation

What the trophoblast is

remenate of mature follicle; makes female hormones, progesterone and estrogen

What the corpus luteum is and its function

when the head is visible

What crowning is

uterus raises to a more vertical position during plateau stage

What tenting of the uterus is and when it occurs

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

What the order of the sexual response is

semitubules, rete tetis, efferent ductules, epididymus, ductus deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, urethra

What the order of travel of sperm is

ovary, pelvic cavity, fimbriae of uterine tube, uterine tube

What the order of travel of the egg is

ejection of mature egg from ovary

What ovulation is

1/2 hour; none

What the refractory periods are in males and females

anchors ovary to the pelvic wall laterally; anchors uterus to body (pelvic) wall; connects ovary to uterus

What the broad, ovarian, and suspensory ligaments are

sperm and egg production; testosterone and estrogen

What FSH and LH stimulate production of in males; in females

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