antimuellerian hormone and testosterone
What are the two signals needed to differentiate into a male
Testis determining factor
What is the Sry gene
vas deferens, epididymis, and seminal vesicles
What do the wollfian ducts become (3 structures)
uterus, oviduct, cervix
What do the meurllarian ducts become?
What is the major regulator of differentiation of the male external genetalial?
genital tubercle in the male
genital swellings in the male
elongated anogenital distance
cloacal folds in males
genital tubercle in females
genital folds in females
the ability to produce and release gametes
What is the single most important definition of puberty?
GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid)
This is the inhibitor during the pre-pubertal years on GnRH release
removal of GABA and addition of glutamate neuroexcitatry neurons (glutaminergic)
What are the initiation factors that aid in the beginning of puberty?
interstitial, basal, and adluminal
What are the three compartments of the testis?
blood, lymph, leydig cells
What is located in the interstital compartment of the testis?
What is located in the basal compartment of the testis?
adluminal and basal
What are the two compartments that are contained within the seminiferous tubules in the male?
the space inside the seminiferous tubules is known as
Spermatogenesis occurs in what compartment?
spermatogonia are located in what compartment of teh male
spermatocytes and round spermatids are located in which compartment
blood testis barrier
sertoli cell junctional complexes form the________
contractile myoid cells
seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a basement membrane that contains ______________?
formation of an adluminal compartment where spermatogenesis can be controlled and prevention of movement of spermatozoa into the interstitum of the testis
What are two functions of the blood testis barrier?
Where is androgen binding hormone produced?
Androgen binding protein
What is the hormone that contributes to the high levels of testosterone in the testis?
growth and function, maintenance
Testosterone regulates ___________ of primary sex organs at puberty and _____________ functions of internal and external genetalial in the adult
What is the ratio of anaboilc versus androgenic effects of testosterone in males
What are the cells that make androgen binding protein and maintains testoterone levels in the seminiferous tubules?
gap junctions and cell-surface receptors
During the development of spermatozoa the sertoli cells are attached to spermatozoa via what two things
maintenance of functioning ability, synthesis of androgen binding protein, estrogen increases due to expression of aromatase
What are the three major functions of FSH on sertoli cells
spermatid to spermatozoa
spermatogonia to round spermatid
primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte
when does the first meiotic division in the sperm cells occurs
secondary spermatocyte to spermatid
when does the second meiotic division occur
condensation of nucleus, addition of the tail, acrosomal cap
What are three major structural changes that occur in spermiogenesis
At the end of spermiogenesis the sperm is motile (true or false)
where does the removal of the cytoplasmic droplet occur?
Without the myoid cells will the sperm get to the epididymis?