The estates general consisted of 3 different estates. The first estate was clergy of the roman catholic church. The second clergy was nobility. The third estate was made up of peasants and the bourgeoisie.
Urban middle class; merchants, manufacturers, and professional people (doctors and lawyers)
Nobles who fled France during the Revolution
The Old Regime is considered the time before the Revolution. It was when society was divided into three estates.
Created an alliance through marriage with Austria (Marie Antoinette); Debt increased under his reign; last of the monarchs before the Revolution and was imprisoned and eventually tried for conspiracy with foreign powers and was executed via guillotine.
Wife of Louis XVI; daughter of Maria Theresa; spent money excessively; she was imprisoned during the French Revolution and she was executed via guillotine.
Olympe de Gouges
Woman playwright; she and a group of other women wrote the Declaration of the the Rights of Women and Citizenesses (women equals to men); however it was rejected by the National assembly; she is executed during the Reign of Terror (guillotined)
Declaration of Rights of Man
National Assembly released document; it dealt with basic human rights and political powers (only applied to men); freedom of speech, press, and religion, all men equal right to hold public office
Universal Manhood suffrage
Policy that every adult male could vote, whether he owned property or not
One of the 3 main groups in the National Convention; Republicans that feared domination of France by Paris
One of the 3 main groups in the National Convention; Republicans that favored domination by Paris; some were extreme radicals (Marat), major Jacobins (Robespierre and Danton)
Activities aimed against, or counter to, a revolution, organized by supporters of the Old Regime
Civil Constitution of Clergy
Period during the French Revolution when the National Convention worked to suppress all opposition.
Leader of the Committee of Public Safety; helped lead Reign of Terror; Accused Danton of disloyalty when he stated that the Reign of Terror had fulfilled its purpose and should be relaxed; Eventually his brutal ways caught up to him by the National Convention they arrested him and he was guillotined.
Committee of Public Safety
The Committee of Public Safety was to direct the army crushing foreign invaders; led by Robespierre; greatly involved in the Reign of Terror; set up wage and price controls; addressed human rights concerns (abolished slavery in France's colonies and encouraged religious tolerance)
Seizure of power by force; French for "stroke of state"
Successful general in French army led to huge popularity; married to Josephine de Beauharnais; wars he had part in referred to the Napoleonic Wars; seized government via coup d'etat
System of French Law under Napoleon's direction
Agreement between Napoleon and the Pope recognizing Catholicism as the religion of most French citizens
Love of one's country rather than of one's native region`
Congress of Vienna
hundreds of delegates that met in Austria trying to regain stability for Europe after Napoleon; most decision making made by Austria, Prussia, Britain, and Russia; gave countries land to compensate losses
Principle involving restoring former ruling families to their thrones
What are the causes of the French Revolution?
The French Revolution was caused by several factors that combined created great discontent among the French people. Economic debt was enormous and food was raised in prices, the 3rd estate was paying taxes while the 1st and 2nd estates paid nothing and were richer than the 3rd, National assembly was threaten by Louis movement of the troops to Paris
How was the Estates General divided? Who benefited and who did not?
The Estates General was separated into 3 estates. The first was Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. The second was nobility. And the third was the peasants and the Bourgeoisie. 1st and 2nd estate benefited because they often voted the same way, where 3rd estate was outvoted.
How did the Enlightenment influence the French Revolution?
Many of the Enlightment ideas had influence in the attitude of the people as well as several documents. The new government was developed using some of the ideas presented by Montesquieu. And Rousseau's ideas on people choosing their government is definitely present.
What were the successes and the failures of the: National Assembly, National Convention, Estates General, and Directory?
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: Successes: removed unfair privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates. Declaration of Rights of Man, sold land of the Church to lower national debt, Civil Constitution of the Clergy... Failures: unable to stop discontent among people, couldn't create a strong government, and constitution was not strong enough to last
NATIONAL CONVENTION: Successes: allowed universal manhood suffrage, put Louis XVI on trial, able to lead a stronger army against enemies, had strong and strict legal system, replaced system of weights and measures with metric system. Failures: it led many of its citizens to the guillotine, huge suppression, prices rose and economy didn't, new calendar
ESTATES GENERAL: Successes: Failures: It failed to help the poor and only benefited the rich, it didn't allow the introduction of new ideas and it was unfair to the 3rd estate.
DIRECTORY: Successes:economy slightly improved. Failures: it got rid of the universal manhood suffrage, weak/corrupt directors, financial difficulties
What are the major examples from the Constitution of 1791 that reflect Constitutionalism?
It limited the power of the king and divided the government in to 3 branches (executive, judicial, legislative)
What threats to stability, both foreign and domestic, existed under the Legislative Assembly?
The threat of other European countries that signed the Declaration of Pillnitz which was to support the return of royal rule to France. They also had to deal with the extreme debt in France. Domestic problems were that the Catholic priests and nobles opposed new order, poorer members of society were suffering from the extreme rise of living.
What are the difference between the Jacobins and the Girondins?
The Jacobins favored domination of France by Paris were as the Girondins feared domination of France by Paris.
In what ways did the French Revolution grow more radical over time?
The French Revolution grew more radical in many ways as the Revolution progressed. They had new governments that either changed what had the government before them had or hadn't and this was extremely radical. They also took ideas from different countries and complied ideas into reforms and into important national documents.
Why was Napoleon able to take power?
Napoleon was able to take power because legislative did away with 4/5 directors so the directory government was weaker then it had been before so it was handed over/seized by Napoleon and his supporters.
What changes to France were made under Napoleon?
Napoleon made drastic changes to education systems (public education), created a better relationship with the Roman Catholic Church (which had little influence during the Revolution), forged alliances with some of France's previous enemies, brought economic prosperity to the debt ridden France.
How did Napoleon change Europe?
Napoleon changed Europe completely at this time. He was a strong politician/military/diplomat. He was able to conquer and threaten other countries to the point that after he was exiled the 2nd time they had to find a way to undo what Napoleon had done to other European countries (compensations).
What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
The purpose of the Congress of Vienna was to establish a balance of power among the European countries, compensate for Napoleon's conquest, create lasting peace and to protect monarchy/suppress revolution in their own countries.
What were the effects of the Congress of Vienna?
The effects were that it compensated countries for losses caused by Napoleon, helped unify European counties, reestablished monarchy in France, helped create balance of power, and helped maintain legitimacy
In ways was the French Revolution successful? In what ways wasn't it?
The French Revolution was successful in gaining a Constitution, reforming government, and helping out with the enormous debt. It wasn't successful in the fact that they often had to change governments and they end right back with a monarchy. It also help France reinvent new ideas on how they wanted life and rights to be.