RR: COMMON UNDERLYING CAUSE OF INTUSSUSCEPTION
Adenovirus infection causing Peyer's patches
RR: 50 YO MALE WITH NEW UNEXPLAINED SKIN YELLOWING AND NO OTHER SYMPTOMS
Cancer of the head of the Pancreas
What category does the drug belong to: Cholestyramine?
Bile Acid Binding Resin (Cholesterol lowering drug)
What category does the drug belong to: 6-mercaptopurine?
AntiCancer drug (inhibits purine synthesis)
What type of information does the Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL) of the thalamus relay?
Somatosensory information from the body
What type of information does the lateral geniculate of the thalamus relay?
Visual retinal information to the occipital lobe
What type of information does the VPM (ventral posterior medial) of the thalamus relay?
Somatosensory information from the face
What type of information does the ventral anterior of the thalamus relay?
Motor basal ganglia to the cortex
What is the antidote for digitalis?
Normalize Potassium levels
Lidocaine or anti digitalis fragments
What are the 4 main pharmocokinetic equations?
Vd = amt of drug in body / plasma drug conc
CL = .7 X Vd / t1/2; LD = Css X Vd; MD = Css X CL
Where does fetal erythropoiesis take place?
(Young Liver Synthesizes Blood)
What adult bones are involved with erythropoeisis?
Tibia and femur
What artery is damaged when there is unilateral lower extremity sensory and/or motor loss?
Anterior Cerebral Artery
What artery is damaged when there is unilateral facial and arm sensory and/or motor loss?
Middle Cerebral Artery
What hormones use steroid receptors?
Thyroxine T3 T4
What histological change takes place in the trachea of a smoker?
Metaplasia: Ciliated columnar to squamous
A pt is in the ER having anaphylaxis; you make an incision beneath the thyroid cartilage to establish an airway; what structure was cut?
What structures transverse the diaphragm and at what vertebral angle do they pass?
IVC at T8
Esophagus and Vagus at T10
Aorta, Thoracic Duct, Azygous Vein at T12
What amniotic fluid measurement is indicative of fetal lung maturity?
Lecithin to Sphingomyelin ratio > 2
A young woman has infertility; recurrent URI's; and dextrocardia; which of her proteins is defective?
Dyenin Arm Defect due to Kartagner's syndrome
The following lung capacities are obtained from an elderly smoker:
FRC 5.0 L
What is the TLC?
TLC = FRC + IC
5.0 + 2.0 = 7.0
What substances are known for causing methemoglobinemia?
Chloroquine Primaquine; Dapsone Sulfonamides; Local Anesthetics; Metoclopramide; Nitrates
A 42 yo woman with fibroids is chronically tired; what is the most likely dx and what changed have occured in the O2 content and saturation?
Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia
No change in O2 content or saturation; but not as much Hemoglobin to be saturated
A pt is shown to have hypoxia and CXR reveals an enalrged heart; what is the most likely cause of hypoxia?
CHF; lungs are not perfused well enough to get O2 to the rest of the body.
What is the differential diagnosis for eosinophilia?
Atopic disease (allergy/asthma/churg strauss)
Acute interstitial nephritis
Collagen Vascular disease
Parasites (lofflers eosinophilic pneumonitis due to ascaris lumbricoides)
A pt presents with an asthma attack; what immunological reaction is taking place that is responsible for the anaphylaxis in the pt?
Mast Cell mediate; antigen cross linking of mast cells and IgE; Type I Hypersensitivity
H&E of a lung biopsy from a plumber shows elongated structures with clubbed ends in tissue; what is the dx and what is he at risk for?
Asbestosis leading to mesothelioma and bronchiogenic carcinoma
A preterm infant has difficulty breathing. An xray reveals a diffuse ground glass appearance with air bronchograms; what is the dx and what would've prevented this?
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Prevented with tx mother with steroids before birth.
A pt develops ARDS from an occupational inhalation of NO2; what histo change is likely to be seen in a pt recovering from ARDS?
Proliferation of type II pneumocytes
A CXR shows pleural effusions; what are the clinical findings?
Decreased breath sounds over the effusion
A tall thin male teenager has abrupt onset dyspnea and left sided chest pain. Percussion on the affected side reveals hyperresonance and breath sounds are diminished; what is the dx?
A CXR shows collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung and mass in the right bronchus; pt has history of recurrent pneumonias; what is the dx?
A pt of yours develops bronchogenic lung cancer but has never smoked. He is a coal miner. Exposure to what substance has put him at risk for developing lung cance?
What complications can arise from lung cancer?
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Endocrine (paraneoplastic syndrome)
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Symptoms (Hoarseness)
Effusions (pleural or pericardial)
Most common cause of pneumonia in children and young adults (college students; recruits; prison inmates)?
A 30 yo comatose man on ventilatory support in the ICU develops an infection and dies; Autopsy reveals pus filled cavity in the right lung; what is the likely etiology?
Aspiration leading to Lung Abscess
A 55 yo man who is a smoker and heavy drinker presents with a new cough and flu-like symptoms; gram stain shows no organisms; silver stain of sputum shows gram negative rods; what is the dx?
Kartagener's syndrome triad and underlying defect?
Triad: Sterility; Bronchiectasis; Recurrent infections
Dyenin arm defect
How does emphysema in smoking differ from emphysema caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency?
smoking - Centriacinar
alpha-1-antitrypsin def - panacinar
What is the hallmark sign of restrictive lung disease?
Normal or slightly increased FEV1/FVC
What lung tumors arise peripherally and are less linked to smoking?
Large Cell Carcinoma
How does the body compensate for hypoxia at high altitude?
Increased Mitochondrial activity
Increased renal excretion of bicarbonate
What are common causes of ARDS?
Toxic Gas inhalation
Increase O2 consumption
A 75 yo pt with a 60 pack a year history comes to teh office complaining of difficulty standing up from his bed when he wakes in the morning and difficulty raising his arms in the morning to wash his hair; what do you suspect?
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome due to Small Cell Cancer
What immunosuppressant is a/w being able to prevent nephrotoxicity with mannitol diuresis?
What immunosuppressant is a/w an antibody that binds to IL-2 receptors on activated T Cells?
What immunosuppressant is a/w inhibiting calcineurin leading to the loss of IL 2 production and the blockage of T cell differentiation and activation?
What immunosuppressant is a/w inhibiting FK-binding protein leading to the loss of IL-2 production?
What immunosuppressant is a/w being metabolized by xanthine oxidase, there fore allopurinol can increase its toxicity?
What genetic syndrome is a/w a 1000 fold increased risk of developing skin cancer?
What genetic syndrome is a/w Alcoholics leading to a B1 deficiency and neurological deficits?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency
What genetic syndrome is a/w defective excision repair leading to thymidine dimer formation?
What genetic syndrome is a/w Galactose-1-P uridyl transferase deficiency leading to MR, HSM, and cataracts?
What genetic syndrome is a/w being treated by avoiding NutraSweet and increasing dietary tyrosine?
What genetic syndrome is a/w hyperextensible skin, loose joints, and bleeding tendency?
What genetic syndrome is a/w treatment with decreased methionine and increased cystine and Vit B6?
What genetic syndrome is a/w self-mutilation, gout, aggression, and choreoathetosis?
Lesch Nyan Syndrome
What genetic syndrome is a/w blocked degradation of branched chain amino acids?
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
What genetic syndrome is a/w a deficiency that results in combined B and T cell deficiency?
Adenasine Deaminase deficiency
What genetic syndrome is a/w a tx of increased intake of ketogenic nutrients (fats)?
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
What genetic syndrome is a/w Dark brown urine, organs, and connective tissue; benign disease?
Compare Carbamoyl phsphat I (CPI) to carbamoyl phosphate II (CPII)?
CPI: Urea cycle; Mitochondria; N from ammonia
CPII: Pyrimidine synth; Cytosol; N from Glutamine
A pt with PKU should have a diet low in phenylalanine; what other dietary modifications should a patient with PKU make?
Replace tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor
A full term neonate becomes mentally retarded and hyperactive and has a musty odor; what is the dx?
A 2 yo girl has an increase in abdominal girth, failure to thrive, and skin/hair depigmentation; dx?
A middle aged man has dark spots in his sclera and notes that his urine turns black when left sitting for a period of time; dx?
A pt has a genetic disease in which the tx includes protein restriction to prevent mental retardation, ketoacidosis, and death; what is the dx?
Maple Syrup Urine Disease