reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
prominent in cnidarians
This process is considered an adaptation of sponges which help the survive changing seasons.
gemmules are aggregations of cells packaged in a capsule) associated with many freshwater sponges in temperate zones
, new individual forms from aggregation of cells surrounded by resistant capsule which may overwinter. Seen in some sponges.
(anemones and hydroids) not the same as regeneration of missing parts
, A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals.
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
offspring formed by union of gametes from two genetically different parents
A condition in which an individual has both female and male gonads and functions as both a male and female in sexual reproduction by producing both sperm and eggs.
having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
individual reverses sex during its lifetime. protogynous (female first) or protandrous (male first). ex. wrasses (reef fishes).
Asexual reproduction in which an unfertilized gamete (usually female) produces female offspring. Parthenogenesis vastly increases the speed at which a population can grow, though it results in a loss of genetic diversity among members of the population.
Diploid egg forms by mitosis
some flatworms, rotifers, and other invertebrates
Some require "fertilization," but the sperm serves only to trigger development
Haploid cells formed by meiosis
Fertilization might or might not occur
Diploid condition can be restored by chromosomal duplication or rejoining of haploid nuclei
fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs become haploid males
a 4n condition precedes meiosis, which restores the diploid state, offspring are clones
reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the maternal body
in amniotes, a reproductive method in which eggs that lack shells are produced and develop inside the body of the mother, who then gives birth to the offspring
reproduction in which eggs develop within the maternal body without additional nourishment from the parent & hatch within the parent or immediately after laying
secondary reproductive organs
accessory organs, all other organs ducts, and glands are secondary. they transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring
primary reproductive organs
also called gonads, they include ovaries and testes also produce egg and sperm
the process by which the male places the sperm inside the females's body, where the eggs are fertilized
might have little more than gamete-producing gonads that produce and release gametes into water
with internal fertilization have reproductive systems as complex as those of vertebrates
Vertebrate reproductive systems
Fish amphibians reptiles, bird, mammals, protherian mammals
Hard shell porous to oxygen and carbon dioxide
yolk filled amniotic sac
urogenital systems (obvious especially in males)
carries urine in both sexes, and sperm in males
duct of the mesonephros which, in males, partially persists as the ductus deferens, and in both sexes, forms the trigone of the bladder and the ureteric bud
a duct through which sperm move from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct at the base of the penis
A common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts found in many nonmammalian vertebrates but in few mammals EXCEPT.placental mammals
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
Small convoluted tubules in the testes wherespermatogenesis takes place.
the production of sperm cells
cells located in the seminiferous tubules to nourish spermatids, FSH acts on these to promote spermatogenesis
in the testes, these cells lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone
the several highly convoluted tubules that lead from the rete testis to the vas deferens and form the head of the epididymis
two small glands that secrete a fluid rich in sugar that nourishes and helps sperm move
tiny, pea-shaped glands inferior to the prostate, they produce a thick clear alkanline mucus that drains into the membranous urethra. acts to wash residual urine out of the urine when ejaculation of semen occurs.
exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation
duct empties into the urethra
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
tube that conveys egg cells away from the ovary toward the uterus; the usual site of fertilization in all gnathostomes)
regions for albumin and shell production
most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium..., and helps to maintain pH
during this process carbon moves from the H to the B and eventually to the L
`the distal portion becomes the uterus
Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus
with or without a placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
neck of the uterus
Uterus meets the vagina
lower reproductive performance in pigs during late summer/autumn, age at puberty..triggered by environmental cues that stimulate the release of gonadotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
mammals, reproduction is either an estrus or a menstrual cycle
the period of highest sexual receptivity (or "heat") in some female mammals that coincides with the time of egg release by the ovary
females only receptive for short periods
days 1-5, uterine endometrium sloughs off because of hormonal stimulation
cycle (latter only in anthropoid primates)
Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the ________ phase., Days 6-14 = _ phase of the ovaries.lining is thickened and its sticky
A stage in the menstrual cycle where the endometrium rapidly regenerates and the blood supply increases.
uterine stage characterized by large "zig-zag" uterine glands
sperm and egg movement occurs
After ovulation, the ovary enters this phase of its cycle.
triggered by ovulation)
, Days 15-28 = _ phase of the ovaries.