OB/GYN Chapter 43

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Amniotic Cavity

cavity which the fetus exists, forms early in gestation, fills with amniotic fluid to protect the fetus.

chorionic Cavity

surrounds the amniotic cavity, the yolk sac is within the chorionic cavity.

Corpus Luteum Cyst

the small yellow endocrine structure that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes progesterone and estrogen.

Crown-Rump Length(CRL)

most accurate measurement of the embryo in the first trimester.

Decidua Basalis

The villi on the maternal side of the placenta or embryo; unites with the chorion to form the placenta.

Decidua Capsularis

the villi surrounding the chorionic sac

Diamniotic

multiple pregnancy with two amniotic sacs.

Double Decidual sac sign

interface between the decidua capsularis and the echogenicity, highly vascular endometrium

Embryologic age (Conceptual Age)

age calculated from when conception occurs

Embryonic Period

time between 6 and10 weeks of gestation

Endovaginal (EV) Transducer

high frequency transducer that is inserted into the vaginal canal to obtain better definition of first trimester pregnancy

Hematopoiesis

production and development of blood cells

human chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

hormone secreted by the trophoblastic cells (developing placenta cells) of the blastocyst: laboratory test indicates pregnancy when values are elevated.

IUP

intrauterine pregnancy

Menstrual Age (gestational Age)

length of time calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period(LMP) to the point at which the pregnancy when values are elevated.

monoamniotic

multiple pregnancy with one amniotic sac

monochorionic

multiple pregnancy with one chorionic sac

MSD

mean sac diameter

Primary yolk sac

first site of formation of red blood cells that will nourish the embryo

Secondary Yolk Sac

formed at 23 days when the primary yolk sac is pinched off by the extra embryonic coelom

Yolk Stalk

the umbilical duct connecting the yolk sac with the embryo

Zygote

fertilized ovum resulting from union of male and female gametes

Multiple pregnancy with two chorionic sacs`

Dichorionic

multiple pregnancy with one chorionic sac

monochorionic

Formed at 23 days when the primary yolk sac is pinched off by the extra embryonic coelom

secondary Yolk Sac

Age Calculated from when conception occurs

Embryologic age

multiple pregnancy with two amniotic sacs

Diamniotic

First site of formation of red blood cells that will nourish the embryo

Primary Yolk Sac

Multiple Pregnancy with one amniotic sac

Monoamniotic

Fertilized ovum resulting from union of male and female gametes.

Zygote

Length of time calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period to the point at which the pregnancy is being assessed

Menstrual Age

The small yellow endocrine structure that develops within a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes progesterone and estrogen

Corpus Luteum Cyst

High frequency transducer that is inserted into the vaginal canal to obtain better definition of first trimester pregnancy

Endovaginal Transducer

The villi surrounding the chorionic sac

Decidua Capsularis

Surround the amniotic cavity

Chorionic Cavity

Hormone secreted by the Trophoblastic cells of the blastocyst; laboratory test indicates pregnancy when values are elevated

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Time between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation

Embryonic Period

The umbilical duct connecting the yolk sac with the embryo

Yolk Stalk

Most accurate measurement of the embryo in the first trimesteer

Crown-Rump-Length

Production and development of blood cells

Hematpoiesis

Mean sac Diameter

MSD

Interface between the decidua capsularis and the echogenic, highly vascu;ar endometrium

Double Decidual Sac Sign

Cavity in which the fetus exists; forms early in gestation; filld with amniotic fluid to protect the fetus

Amniotic Cavity

Intrauterine Pregnancy

IUP

The villi on the maternal side of the placenta or embryo; unites with the chorion to form the placenta

Decidua Basalis

Clinicals and sonographers use ________ to date the pregnancy, with the first day of the last menstrual Period as the beginning of the gestation.

Gestation

In the first 9 menstrual weeks, the conceptus is called an

Embryo

For the time after the first 9 weeks, the embryo is called

fetus

The gestational Age (age known as postmenopausal age) is calculated by adding_______ weeks to conceptional age.

2

The fertilization ovum which should know be referred to as a _____ undergoes rapid cellular division to form the 16-cell morulla.

zygote

The blastocyst typically enters the uterus 4 to 5 days after fertilization with implantation occurring ____ days after ovulation.

7 to 9

Although the organ function remains as minimal the ____ system is the first organ to develop rapidly with the first hearbeats between 5.5 to 6 weeks.

Cardiovascular

Gestational sac size and hCG levels increase ____ until 8 menstrual weeks.

Proportionately

After 8 weeks hCG levels ___ and subsequently decline while the gestational sac continues to grow.

Plateau

A normal gestational sac can be consistently demonstrated when the hCG level ranges between _____ mIU/ml.

1000 to 2000

The sonographer must be aware that when the hCG level is elevated and the gestational sac is not seen within the uterus a ____ pregnancy should be considered.

Ectopic

The interface between decidua capsularis and the echogenic highly vascularized endometrium forms the ____ sign which has been reported to be a reliable sign of a viable gestation.

Double decidual sac

The gestational sac size grow at a predictable rate of ____ mm per day in early pregnancy.

1

The first intragestational sac anatomy seen is the sonographic _____ sac which is routinely visualized between 5 and 5.5 wks gestation.

Yolk

The limb buds are embryologically recognizable during the ____ week of gestation.

6th

The spine is also developing the embryonic period particularly in the ____ weeks of gestation.

5 to 7

The embryonic phase undergoes significant evolution starting in the 5th week of gestation with palate fusion beginning around the ____ week of gestation.

12th

At approximately 10 weeks of gestation the midgut loop continues to grow and rotate before it descends into the fetal abdomen at about the ____ week.

11th

The cystic rhomboid fossa can sonographically be imaged routinely from the _________ week of gestation.

8th to 11th

It is important to note that the ________ ventricles completely fill the cerebral vault at this time in gestation.

Lateral

Sonographically the gestational sac size or mean sac diameter is determined by the average sum of the _________, _______,and _____ of the gestational sac.

Length, width, height

Failure to visualize the yolk sac, with a minimum of _______ mm MSD, using endovaginal sonography, should provoke suspicion of abnormal pregnancy.

8

Transabdominal studies have sgown that the yolk sac should be seen within mean sac diameters of ________ mm and should always be visualized with a mean sac diameter of 20mm.

10 to 15

The growth rate of the yolk sac has been reported to be approximately ______ mm per millimeter of growth of the MSD when the MSD is less than 15mm

0.1

Using endovaginal sonography, multiple gestation's cab readily be diagnosed at very early stages, between ______ weeks.

5.5 to 6.5

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