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LTP occurs only when the high-intensity, high-frequency stimulation activates the

both presynaptic and postsynaptic

Some hippocampal neurons become active only when the subject is

in a particular place

After his surgery, H.M.'s IQ

increased

Why do we have 2 memory systems- explicit and implicit- that are both capable of learning the same material? What advantage is there in having a second, conscious system? Recent evidence suggests that the answer is

greater flexibility

H.M.'s greatest postsurgical problem is his

anterograde amnesia

Which structure is thought to store memories for visual images?

inferotemporal cortex

The amygdalda is thought to play a role in

memory for the emotional significance of experiences

Grid cells, head direction cells, and border cells are located in the

entohinal cortex

The amygdala appears to be involved in the _____ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum apprears to be involved in the _____ component.

emotional; sensorimotor

The striatum is thought to store

memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses AND the type of memories that develop incrementally over many trials (habit formation).

The cerebellum is thought to store memories of

learned sensorimotor skills

The current consensus is that memories of experiences are likely stored

diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original experience

Long-term potentiation

has been commonly studied in several different neural circuits in the hippocampus

The main reason why LTP is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it

involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage.

A major contribution of H.M.'s case

was the first to strongly implicate the medial temporal lobes in memory, effectively challenged the view that memorial functions are diffusely and equivalently distributed throughout the brain, provided support for the view that there are distinct modes of short-term and long-term storage, and provided evidence of memory without conscious awareness.

Explicit memories for the particular events or experiences of one's life are ____ memories

episodic

Both galanin and neuropeptide Y

are peptides AND increase eating

Small amounts of food eaten prior to a meal ______. This is called _______.

increase; the appetizer effect

_____ encourages the consumption of a varied diet.

sensory-specific satiety

Receptors for insulin and leptin are particularly dense in the

arcuate nucleus

Although _____ agonists are effective in the treatment of obesity, they are currently not in wide use because they tend to have dangerous side effects.

serotonin

As a meal is consumed,

there is a rapid decline in the positive-incentive values of the particular tastes that are being consumed AND there is a gradual decline in the positive-incentive value of all foods.

If you were to eliminate 500 calories from your daily diet, you would likely

initially lose weight, but the amount lost each day would decline until a new stable weight was reached

Efforts to develop a leptin treatment for typical cases of human obesity have been

disappointing

Cafeteria diets

are those in which several palatable foods are available.

Many hunger and satiety peptides have receptors in the

hypothalamus

According to the text, many people who live in modern industrialized societies have difficulty eating a diet with enough vitamins and minerals because

they eat too many different flavors each day for their system to learn the relation between the flavor of a food and its effects

People tend to feel hungry

at their regular mealtimes, whenever they are.

As a person puts on weight, there is

a decrease in the efficiency of energy use

Leptin has proven effective in the treatment of obesity in

those who are homozygous for the mutant ob gene

Located just above the pituitary is the

hypothalamus

Hormones influence sexual behavior by

directing the development of many of the anatomical, physiological and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as male or female AND by activating the reproduction-related behavior of sexually mature adults

In males, one sex chromosomes is an X chromosome and the other is

a Y chromosome

Endocrine glands are ductless glands; they release

hormones into the circulatory system

Which of the following statements is true?

a male pituitary gland into a female displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release

All of the sex steroids that are released by the gonads are also released by the

adrenal cortex

Releasing hormones control the release of

tropic hormones

Unlike the posterior pituitary, the anterior pituitary

receives no neural input

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are

progestins, estrogens, and androgens

The most prevalent estrogen is

estradiol

Although the pituitary is often referred to as the master gland, strictly speaking the master gland is the

anterior gland

There are often large minute-to-minute fluctuations in the levels of a person's circulating hormones, These fluctuations are often the result of

pulsatile hormone release

Which of the following statements describes our current understanding of differences in the structure of human female and human male brains?

many structural differences have been documented

The fact that the probability of homosexuality of human males increases as a function of the number of older brothers

is the fraternal birth order effect

Oxytocin and vasopressin

are synthesized in the hypothalamus

Same sex sexual preferences have been induced in several species by perinatal

castration of males AND testosterone injections in females

In one study volunteers gradually reduced the number of hours that they slept each night until they felt that they had reached their limit. On the average, this limit was

5 hours

In view of the evidence, the widespread practice of taking melatonin to promote sleep is

likely to be of no more than minor benefit

Microsleeps are usually about _____ long

3 seconds

During REM sleep, changes in autonamic nervous system activity suggest

arousal

A vivid dreamlike state during wakefulness, often just as one awakens or falls asleep is

a hypnagogic hallucination

After a person falls asleep at night, the fourth stage of sleep EEG that is normally observed is

stage 4

Professor Bland sometimes falls asleep while she is having a discussion. She would likely be diagnosed as having

narcolepsy

Which of the following is NOT a change that signals the beginning of REM sleep?

an increase in the tension of the muscles of the body core

When they fall asleep, narcoleptics immediately

go into REM sleep

Sleep spindles and K complexes are characteristic of

stage 2 sleep

Nacrolepsy is most often consideredto be a disorder of

hypersomnia

Disorders of excessive sleep or sleepiness are classified as

hypersomnia

Which of the following is characterized by a low-amplitude, high frequency sleep EEG signal that is similar to that observed during active wakefulness?

stage 1

Each cycle of sleep during the night tends to be about

90 minutes long

During microsleeps, people

become less responsive to external stimuli AND display a sleep EEG

Because REM sleep is similar to wakefulness in several respects, it makes sense that REM sleep circuits are controlled by a structure involved in maintaining wakefulness: the

reticular activating system

A condition in which a person's sleep is repeatedly disrupted by the inability to breath is called

sleep apnea

Many addicts who are motivated to "kick the habit" manage to stop taking their drug, but often

relapse

According to the text, addicts are drug users who

continue to use a drug despite the drug's adverse effects on their health and social life, and despite their efforts to stop

According to the incentive-senitization theory of addiction, all addictive drugs produce

sensitization to the effects that influence the positive-incentitive value of the drug

Individuals who experience withdrawal effects are, by definition,

physically dependent

Which of the following is a finding about addiction that is currently influencing the study of its brain mechanisms?

Addiction is psychologically complex.
Addiction involves many parts of the brain.
Addiction involves neurotransmitters other than dopamine.
Addictive behavior is a general problem that involves more than addiction to drugs.

The early physical-dependence theories of drug addiction were discredited by the observation that

detoxified addicts almost always return to their drug-taking

Modern physical-dependence theories of drug addiction attempt to account for the fact that addicts frequently relapse after lengthy drug-free periods by postulating

that conditioned withdrawal effects are the basis of drug craving.

In addition to the nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala are thought to play major roles in

the initial taking of addictive drugs.

The defining feature of addiction is

the inability to stop using a drug despite efforts to do so.

The severity of withdrawal symptoms depends upon the

particular drug in question, dose of the preceding drug, duration of the preceding drug, and speed with which the drug is cleared from the body

Originally, the nucleus accumbens was thought to mediate the experience of reward, but some current evidence suggests that increases in extracellular dopamine occur in the nucleus accumbens when the

subject expects the reward.

The lack of strong support for early physical-dependence theories of addiction lent indirect support to the notion that the primary factors in drug addiction are

the drug's positive-incentive properties.

As drug craving and compulsive drug taking develops, control of drug taking is thought to shift from the

ventral to dorsal striatum AND prefrontal cortex to stress circuits in the hypothalamus.

Left-handers and right-handers are

sinestrals and dextrals, respectively.

The left and right hemispheres are connected by the

cerebral commissures

According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, Broca's area contains the neural programs of

articulation (speech production).

The helping-hand phenomenon was demonstrated in a test

in which the test items were in open view on top of a table.

Evidence that the perception of music is lateralized comes from demonstrations that

the left ear is superior to the right in the melodic dichotic listening test.

The discovery of the lateralization of aphasia and apraxia led to the

concept of a dominant left hemisphere.

Although the symptoms of apraxia are ________, apraxia usually results from damage to the ________ hemisphere.

bilateral; left

After the picture of a familiar object is flashed in the right visual field of a human split-brain patient, the patient can

say what the object was AND reach into a bag with her right hand and select the object that was presented from a group of test objects.

The results of sodium amytal tests suggest that the percentage of healthy right-handers in the general population that are left-hemisphere dominant for speech is

more than 90%.

During a test in which split-brain patients were asked to verbally specify which of two colors, red or green, had been presented in the left visual field, an interesting phenomenon was discovered. This phenomenon is

cross-cuing.

According to the text, which of the following statements is true?

Some evidence suggests that the brains of females are less lateralized than those of males.

Sodium amytal and dichotic listening tests are commonly used tests of

language lateralization.

The two hemispheres, although similar in appearance, differ in function. The study of these functional differences is commonly referred to as the study of

lateralization of function.

Brain-damage-produced deficits in language-related ability are generally referred to as

aphasia

The left-hemisphere is dominant for speech in

nearly all right-handers and the majority of left-handers.

A spoon is presented in the left visual field of a split-brain patient, and an apple is simultaneously presented in the right. Then, the patient is instructed to reach into two bags (one with each hand) and feel around until he comes up with the object that was presented on the screen. However, before the objects are withdrawn, the patient is asked to tell the experimenter what he has in each hand. The patient is likely to say, "I have

an apple in each hand"

According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, when we read, the output of the angular gyrus is transmitted to

Wernicke's area.

The results of CT and structural MRI studies of aphasic patients indicate that

not all aphasic patients have damage to the classic Wernicke-Geschwind areas.
most aphasics have extensive damage to subcortical white matter.
few, if any, aphasics have damage restricted to the classic Wernicke-Geschwind areas.
large anterior lesions tend to be associated with deficits in language expression, whereas large posterior lesions tend to be associated with deficits in language comprehension.

The adult neurogenesis of hippocampal cells is reduced by

stress

A mirror-like system is thought to be the neural mechanism of

empathy

The belief that putting on a happy face makes one feel happier is an example of the

facial feedback hypothesis

Ronda was threatened by a robber so she kicked him. Her response is an example of

a defensive attack

According to the James-Lange theory, the

experience of emotion is produced by the brain's perception of the body's reactions to emotional stimuli.

Research on the lateralization of emotion in humans using functional brain imaging suggests that the degree to which it is lateralized to the right hemisphere depends on

the particular brain structure under investigation.

In the short-term, stressors produce physiological changes that

increase the ability to deal effectively with the stressor.

The structure in which the emotional significance of sensory signals is learned and retained is believed to be the

amygdala

The human amygdala seems to be specifically involved in the

perception of fear in others

The amygdala is thought to activate the appropriate sympathetic and behavioral responses to threat via the __________, respectively.

hypothalamus and PAG

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, different emotional stimuli induce __________ patterns of autonomic nervous system activity.

the same

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the feeling of emotion by the cortex and the expression of emotion by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems are

parallel processes

Correlations between aggressive behavior and testosterone levels do not necessarily mean that high testosterone levels cause aggressive behavior because

aggressive encounters often cause increases in testosterone levels.

Depression is often divided into two categories: reactive depression and __________ depression.

endogenous

The __________ individual typically leaves behind a trail of unfinished projects, unpaid bills, and broken relationships.

manic

Drugs that reduce depression without increasing mania or reduce mania without increasing depression are called

mood stabilizers

The concordance rate of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins is

about 45%

The monoamine theory of depression is based on the fact that

most drugs used to treat depression are monoamine agonists.

Many studies have found structural and functional brain pathology in patients suffering from affective disorders. Although there is little consensus about the exact location of the brain pathology, it is most commonly observed in two structures: the

amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex.

The symptoms of schizophrenia are often divided into two categories:

positive and negative

Disorders characterized by recurring uncontrollable anxiety-producing thoughts and impulses are classified as __________ disorders.

obsessive-compulsive

Chronic fear that persists in the absence of any direct threat is known as

anxiety

Most prevalent of all psychiatric disorders are the __________ disorders.

anxiety

Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that schizophrenia

is greatly influenced by genetic factors.

Many of the people who experience clinical depression also experience recurring periods of

mania

Hallucinations associated with schizophrenia often take the form of

imaginary voices making critical comments or telling the patient what to do.

Benzodiazepines

are GABAA agonists

A major problem with the therapeutic use of neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia is that they

help only a small proportion of patients.
tend to act on only some symptoms.
produce disturbing side effects.

Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

hallucinations
inappropriate affect
delusions
incoherent speech or thought

Depressed patients who do not experience periods of mania are said to suffer from __________ affective disorders.

unipolar

Phobic disorders, panic disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders are all categories of

anxiety disorder

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