The Kashmir Dispute/ Afghanistan: A Failed State

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Kashmir

Region in the far north of colonial India, had a predominantly Muslim population. 1947, Hindu ruler of Kashmir decided that it should become part of India. After colonial India became independent as the nations of Pakistan and India, they fought over control of Kashmir, which ended up being divided between the 2. The UN has tried to mediate this dispute without success. UN has favored holding a referendum in Kashmir so that the population can decide with which nation it wishes to affiliate. The border remains tense with large numbers of troops on each side. Militant Islamic groups still resist Indian rule in the southern part of Kashmir.

Pashtuns

Comprise 42% of the population in Afghanistan. (Mostly Sunni)

Tajiks

27% of population in Afghanistan (Mostly Sunni)

Hazara

9% of the population. ( Mostly Shiites)

Uzbeks

9% of the population (Mostly Sunni)

Ahmed Shah

1747, became first monarch of Afghanistan

Durand Line

1893, British forced Afghan gov't to accept the British definition of Afghanistan's southern border with Pakistan. The border splits the Pashtun ethnic group, with part of the Pashtun community in Afghanistan and part in Pakistan.

PDPA (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan)

Began in the 1960s and became significant political force in 1970s. Received financial support from the Soviet Union and political support from Soviet trained officers in the Afghan army.

Daoud

1973, well-known politician and former prime minister as Afghanistan, overthrew the king. King remained in exile. 1979, PDPA seized power from Daoud. Reforms that the new gov't tried to carry out caused widespread resistance. In response, the SU intervened militarily.

mujahideen

Those resisting the Soviet forces in Afghanistan. "holy warriors"

Osama bin Laden

Wealthy businessman from Saudi Arabia who helped to recruit and train Arab volunteers to fight against the SU in Afghanistan. Went to the city of Peshawar to establish a base for these volunteers to fight the Soviets across the border in Afghanistan.

Afghan Arabs

Citizens of various Arab nations who went to Afghanistan to help battle Soviet forces

Taliban

Islamic group in Afghanistan. Became active in 1994 and gained control of most of the country by 2001. Leaders were mostly from the Pashtun ethnic group.

madrasahs

Islamic religious schools in Pakistan. Many leaders from the Taliban studied in these schools.

Mullah Mohammad Omar

Leader of the Taliban

Nothern Alliance

Group of regional military leaders held territory in the Northeastern part of Afghanistan and continued to resist the Taliban. Major leaders cam from the Tajik and Uzbek ethnic groups.

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