a human-made object, such as a tool, weapon, or piece of jewelry.
A prehistoric period that lasted from about 2,500,000 to 8,000 B.C., during which people made use of crude stone tools and weapons (also called Old Stone Age)
the biological species to which modern human beings belong.
The major change in human life caused by the beginnings of farming- that is, by peoples shift from food gathering to food producing.
The taming of animals for human use.
A skilled worker, such as a weaver or a potter, who makes goods by hand.
A system of Writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
A tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian Temple.
A city in its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit.
A belief in many gods
A marshy region formed by deposits of silts at the mouth of a river.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds.
a wind that shifts in direction at certain times each year.
A fertile deposit of windblown soil
The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties.
dry, grass-covered plains
the Southwest Asian peninsula now occupied by the Asian part of Turkey (also called Asia Minor).
In Aryan society, A member of the social class made up of priests
in Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding.
Founder of Buddhism, born into noble family, lived in the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal.
A seafaring and trading people that lived on the island of Crete. From about 2000-1400 B.C.
According to legend; king Minos owned a half-human half-bull monster called the Minotaur. (Kept it locked in a labyrinth)
Ancient home of the Hebrews.
A belief in a single God
The new kingdom for the Hebrews, lead by Saul, David, and Solomon. (1020-922 B.C.)
A people's unique way of life, as shown by its tools, customs, arts, and ideas.
A prehistoric Period, began about 8000 B.C. and in some areas ended as early as about 3000 B.C., during which people learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals. (Also called new Stone Age)
A member of a group that has no permanent home, wandering from place to place in search of food and water.
Slash and Burn Farming
A farming method in which people clear fields by cutting and burning trees and grasses, the ashes of which served to fertilize the soil.
A form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
A long-lasting pattern of organization in a community.
a period in human history, beginning around 3000 B.C. in some areas, during which people began using bronze, rather than copper or stone, to fashion tools and weapons.
an Arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Golf and the Mediterranean Sea.
A series of rulers from a single family.
A political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are controlled by a single ruler.
King who joined upper and lower Egypt.
A burial site in ancient Egypt for the Pharaoh's and their wives.
A new writing surface invented by the early Egyptians (made from Papyrus reeds stripped and woven together).
Civilization in the Indus had really good city planning. (Possibly formed around 7000 B.C.)
Animal Bones and tortoise shells used by Shang kings to consult the gods
A political system in which nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king
the process of moving from one place to another.
an Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C., began to migrate into the Indian sub-continent.
One of the four classes of people in the social system of the Aryans who settled in India (Priests, warriors, peasants + traders, and non-Aryan laborers or craftsman).
in Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after birth.
in Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe.
Lies between Anatolia and Greece (meets up with the Mediterranean).
Most powerful traders along the Mediterranean after the fall of Crete.
First five books of the Hebrew bible
mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrews.
A Hebrew kingdom in Palestine, established around 922 B.C.
A member of a biological group including human beings and related species that walk upright.
The ways in which people apply knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs.
Member of nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods.
Development of skills in a particular kind of work, like trading or record keeping.
Professional record keepers in early civilization.
A form of trade in which people exchange and services without the use of money.
"land between rivers"
The process when a new idea or product spreads from one culture to another.
Ruler of Babylon (1792-1750 B.C.) Put together famous code of laws.
Egyptian God/kings. Thought of as splendid and powerful gods of heaven.
Early Egyptian's way of preserving royal and elite bodies.
Landmass including India, Pakistan, and Bangledan.
A form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology.
Mandate of Heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority.
A group of semi nomadic peoples who, about 1700 B.C., began to migrate from what is now Southern Russia to the India Subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia.
an Indo-European people who settled in Anatolia around 2000 B.C.
Four collections of sacred writings produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their settlement in India.
A great Indian epic poem, reflecting the struggles of the Aryan as they moved south into India.
A religion founded in India in the sixth century B.C., whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore should not be harmed.
in Buddhism, the relief from pain and suffering, achieved after enlightenment.
the Minoan capital city. Excavated by archaeologists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Where the Phoenicians lived. (A region at the Eastern end of the Mediterranean.)
Man chosen by god to be the father of the Hebrew people.
The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery
A payment made by a weaker power to a stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and security.