Science-Topic 7: Seeded Plants

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seeded plant

a plant that produces a fertilized egg (embryo) that is encased within a seed structure.

properties of seeded plants

Use vascular tissue to move materials.
Reproduce using pollen and seeds.

xylem

move water/minerals up.

phloem

move food down.

pollen

structure that delivers sperm to egg.

seed

structure that protects and nourishes fertilized egg.

seed coat

protects seed from drying out.

endosperm

food supply to nourish new plant.

embryo

start of new plant. Contains 3 parts: Cotyledon, hypocotyl, and roots.

cotyledon

initial leaf.

hypocotyl

initial stem.

seed dispersal

plants can't move, and so disperse seeds in many ways, such as wind, water, and animals.

germination

the process that starts when seed comes in contact with water. Embryo uses endosperm to grow out of seed.

objectives of roots

1) Anchor plant in the ground.
2) Absorb minerals + water from soil.
3) Food source.

taproot

one strong main root with branches.

fibrous

similar weak size branches.

root hairs

absorb water and nutrients.

dividing cells

expand root.

root cap

protects dividing cells.

objectives of stems

support plant and transport materials.

herbaceous

type of soft, fragile stem; dies at end of growing season.

woody

type of hard stem, covered with bark, survives beyond growing season.

cambium

behind bark, makes new xylem and phloem

leaf

the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants.

cuticle

waterproof coating that prevents water loss.

epidermis

top protective layer of cells.

mesophyll

tissue in the middle of the leaf.

palisades (upper) layer

thick layer with many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

spongy (bottom) layer

allows for gas exchange.

vein

xylem and phloem.

stomata

allow gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in and out.

transpiration

water loss in plants.

prevention of water loss

water loss is prevented by closing down stomata.

leaves and photosynthesis

1) Carbon Dioxide from Stomata.
2) Water from Xylem.
3) Sugar + Oxygen made in Mesophyll.
4) Sugar go to Phloem.
5) Oxygen out of Stomata.

gymnosperm

naked seeds protected by plant structure (cones/leaves).

cone

the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm which contains a seed.

key features of gymnosperms

needle-like leaves and deep roots.

cycads

gymnosperm which has palm leaves with cones.

conifers

gymnosperm which keeps leaves (needles) all year round.

ginkgoes

gymnosperm with fan-shaped leaves. Only one type on earth.

gnetophytes

gymnosperm which has veins similar in structure to flowering plants (angiosperms).

sporophyte of gymnosperms

spores grow in cones.

gametophyte of gymnosperms

grow inside cones. Sperm made in pollen. Egg made in ovule. Wind moves pollen to ovule. Sperm enters ovule-fertilization. Wind disperses seed to new location.

angiosperm

flowers produce seeds protected by fruit.

fruit

fleshy structures that enclose seeds of plant.

monocot

seed has 1 cotyledon (initial leaf). Vascular tissue scattered through in plant. Flower petals in 3s.

dicot

seed has 2 cotyledon (initial leaves). Vascular tissue in bundles. Flower petals in 4s or 5s.

flower

reproductive organ of angiosperm plants.

sepal

protects flower.

petal

attracts insects with color and scent.

stamen

male reproductive organ.

anther

makes pollen.

filament

stalk that supports anther.

pistil

female reproductive organ.

stigma

sticky structure that attaches to pollen.

style

attaches stigma to ovary. Sends pollen to fertilize eggs in ovary.

ovary

holds eggs in ovules before fertilization.

ovule

a structure that contains an egg cell.

sporophyte of angiosperms

spores grow in flowers.
Male spore-stamen
Female spore-pistil.

gametophyte of angiosperms

Male spore-Pollen (male)
Female spore-ovule(female)
haploid.

pollination of angiosperms

pollen sticks to stigma and then moves to ovary.

fertilization of angiosperms

each ovule is fertilized. Zygotes grow into seeds.

fruit growth

ovary walls grow to become fruit surrounding seeds.

tropism

a growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus.

hormone

a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops.

auxin

a plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells. Plant uses _____ to grow towards or away from stimuli.

photoperiodism

a seasonal response where plants flower depending on how long the day is.

short-day plant

bloom in fall/winter.

long-day plant

bloom in spring/summer.

critical night length

the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower.

day-neutral plant

a plant whose flowering cycle is not sensitive to periods of light and dark.

dormancy

plant stops growth to survive freezing temperatures or lack of water.

annual

one year life cycle.

biennial

two year life cycle.
Year 1: Grows roots and leaves.
Year 2: Grows stem and flowers.

perennial

more than two year life cycle.

thigmotropism

Tropism type 1: Touch.
Plant grows around object they touch.

phototropism

Tropism type 2: Light.
Leaves and stems grow toward light to get energy.

gravitropism

Tropism Type 3: Gravity.
Roots go down. Stems go up.

pollination

the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.

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