a plant that produces a fertilized egg (embryo) that is encased within a seed structure.
properties of seeded plants
Use vascular tissue to move materials.
Reproduce using pollen and seeds.
move water/minerals up.
move food down.
structure that delivers sperm to egg.
structure that protects and nourishes fertilized egg.
protects seed from drying out.
food supply to nourish new plant.
start of new plant. Contains 3 parts: Cotyledon, hypocotyl, and roots.
plants can't move, and so disperse seeds in many ways, such as wind, water, and animals.
the process that starts when seed comes in contact with water. Embryo uses endosperm to grow out of seed.
objectives of roots
1) Anchor plant in the ground.
2) Absorb minerals + water from soil.
3) Food source.
one strong main root with branches.
similar weak size branches.
absorb water and nutrients.
protects dividing cells.
objectives of stems
support plant and transport materials.
type of soft, fragile stem; dies at end of growing season.
type of hard stem, covered with bark, survives beyond growing season.
behind bark, makes new xylem and phloem
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants.
waterproof coating that prevents water loss.
top protective layer of cells.
tissue in the middle of the leaf.
palisades (upper) layer
thick layer with many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
spongy (bottom) layer
allows for gas exchange.
xylem and phloem.
allow gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in and out.
water loss in plants.
prevention of water loss
water loss is prevented by closing down stomata.
leaves and photosynthesis
1) Carbon Dioxide from Stomata.
2) Water from Xylem.
3) Sugar + Oxygen made in Mesophyll.
4) Sugar go to Phloem.
5) Oxygen out of Stomata.
naked seeds protected by plant structure (cones/leaves).
the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm which contains a seed.
key features of gymnosperms
needle-like leaves and deep roots.
gymnosperm which has palm leaves with cones.
gymnosperm which keeps leaves (needles) all year round.
gymnosperm with fan-shaped leaves. Only one type on earth.
gymnosperm which has veins similar in structure to flowering plants (angiosperms).
sporophyte of gymnosperms
spores grow in cones.
gametophyte of gymnosperms
grow inside cones. Sperm made in pollen. Egg made in ovule. Wind moves pollen to ovule. Sperm enters ovule-fertilization. Wind disperses seed to new location.
flowers produce seeds protected by fruit.
fleshy structures that enclose seeds of plant.
seed has 1 cotyledon (initial leaf). Vascular tissue scattered through in plant. Flower petals in 3s.
seed has 2 cotyledon (initial leaves). Vascular tissue in bundles. Flower petals in 4s or 5s.
reproductive organ of angiosperm plants.
attracts insects with color and scent.
male reproductive organ.
stalk that supports anther.
female reproductive organ.
sticky structure that attaches to pollen.
attaches stigma to ovary. Sends pollen to fertilize eggs in ovary.
holds eggs in ovules before fertilization.
a structure that contains an egg cell.
sporophyte of angiosperms
spores grow in flowers.
gametophyte of angiosperms
Male spore-Pollen (male)
pollination of angiosperms
pollen sticks to stigma and then moves to ovary.
fertilization of angiosperms
each ovule is fertilized. Zygotes grow into seeds.
ovary walls grow to become fruit surrounding seeds.
a growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus.
a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops.
a plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells. Plant uses _____ to grow towards or away from stimuli.
a seasonal response where plants flower depending on how long the day is.
bloom in fall/winter.
bloom in spring/summer.
critical night length
the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower.
a plant whose flowering cycle is not sensitive to periods of light and dark.
plant stops growth to survive freezing temperatures or lack of water.
one year life cycle.
two year life cycle.
Year 1: Grows roots and leaves.
Year 2: Grows stem and flowers.
more than two year life cycle.
Tropism type 1: Touch.
Plant grows around object they touch.
Tropism type 2: Light.
Leaves and stems grow toward light to get energy.
Tropism Type 3: Gravity.
Roots go down. Stems go up.
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.