Science-Topic 8: Seeded Plants
|seeded plant||a plant that produces a fertilized egg (embryo) that is encased within a seed structure.|
|properties of seeded plants|| Use vascular tissue to move materials.|
Reproduce using pollen and seeds.
|xylem||move water/minerals up.|
|phloem||move food down.|
|pollen||structure that delivers sperm to egg.|
|seed||structure that protects and nourishes fertilized egg.|
|seed coat||protects seed from drying out.|
|endosperm||food supply to nourish new plant.|
|embryo||start of new plant. Contains 3 parts: Cotyledon, hypocotyl, and roots.|
|seed dispersal||plants can't move, and so disperse seeds in many ways, such as wind, water, and animals.|
|germination||the process that starts when seed comes in contact with water. Embryo uses endosperm to grow out of seed.|
|objectives of roots|| 1) Anchor plant in the ground.|
2) Absorb minerals + water from soil.
3) Food source.
|taproot||one strong main root with branches.|
|fibrous||similar weak size branches.|
|root hairs||absorb water and nutrients.|
|dividing cells||expand root.|
|root cap||protects dividing cells.|
|objectives of stems||support plant and transport materials.|
|herbaceous||type of soft, fragile stem; dies at end of growing season.|
|woody||type of hard stem, covered with bark, survives beyond growing season.|
|cambium||behind bark, makes new xylem and phloem|
|leaf||the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants.|
|cuticle||waterproof coating that prevents water loss.|
|epidermis||top protective layer of cells.|
|mesophyll||tissue in the middle of the leaf.|
|palisades (upper) layer||thick layer with many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.|
|spongy (bottom) layer||allows for gas exchange.|
|vein||xylem and phloem.|
|stomata||allow gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in and out.|
|transpiration||water loss in plants.|
|prevention of water loss||water loss is prevented by closing down stomata.|
|leaves and photosynthesis|| 1) Carbon Dioxide from Stomata.|
2) Water from Xylem.
3) Sugar + Oxygen made in Mesophyll.
4) Sugar go to Phloem.
5) Oxygen out of Stomata.
|gymnosperm||naked seeds protected by plant structure (cones/leaves).|
|cone||the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm which contains a seed.|
|key features of gymnosperms||needle-like leaves and deep roots.|
|cycads||gymnosperm which has palm leaves with cones.|
|conifers||gymnosperm which keeps leaves (needles) all year round.|
|ginkgoes||gymnosperm with fan-shaped leaves. Only one type on earth.|
|gnetophytes||gymnosperm which has veins similar in structure to flowering plants (angiosperms).|
|sporophyte of gymnosperms||spores grow in cones.|
|gametophyte of gymnosperms||grow inside cones. Sperm made in pollen. Egg made in ovule. Wind moves pollen to ovule. Sperm enters ovule-fertilization. Wind disperses seed to new location.|
|angiosperm||flowers produce seeds protected by fruit.|
|fruit||fleshy structures that enclose seeds of plant.|
|monocot||seed has 1 cotyledon (initial leaf). Vascular tissue scattered through in plant. Flower petals in 3s.|
|dicot||seed has 2 cotyledon (initial leaves). Vascular tissue in bundles. Flower petals in 4s or 5s.|
|flower||reproductive organ of angiosperm plants.|
|petal||attracts insects with color and scent.|
|stamen||male reproductive organ.|
|filament||stalk that supports anther.|
|pistil||female reproductive organ.|
|stigma||sticky structure that attaches to pollen.|
|style||attaches stigma to ovary. Sends pollen to fertilize eggs in ovary.|
|ovary||holds eggs in ovules before fertilization.|
|ovule||a structure that contains an egg cell.|
|sporophyte of angiosperms|| spores grow in flowers.|
|gametophyte of angiosperms|| Male spore-Pollen (male)|
|pollination of angiosperms||pollen sticks to stigma and then moves to ovary.|
|fertilization of angiosperms||each ovule is fertilized. Zygotes grow into seeds.|
|fruit growth||ovary walls grow to become fruit surrounding seeds.|
|tropism||a growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus.|
|hormone||a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops.|
|auxin||a plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells. Plant uses _____ to grow towards or away from stimuli.|
|photoperiodism||a seasonal response where plants flower depending on how long the day is.|
|short-day plant||bloom in fall/winter.|
|long-day plant||bloom in spring/summer.|
|critical night length||the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower.|
|day-neutral plant||a plant whose flowering cycle is not sensitive to periods of light and dark.|
|dormancy||plant stops growth to survive freezing temperatures or lack of water.|
|annual||one year life cycle.|
|biennial|| two year life cycle.|
Year 1: Grows roots and leaves.
Year 2: Grows stem and flowers.
|perennial||more than two year life cycle.|
|thigmotropism|| Tropism type 1: Touch.|
Plant grows around object they touch.
|phototropism|| Tropism type 2: Light.|
Leaves and stems grow toward light to get energy.
|gravitropism|| Tropism Type 3: Gravity.|
Roots go down. Stems go up.
|pollination||the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.|