Female Reproductive Disorders

16 terms by kmaguth

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Dysmenorrhea

 Painful menstrual flow
 Most common in young women
 Painful uterine cramping; lower abdomen and back pain
 Tx: NSAIDS, oral contraceptives, heat packs, relaxation techniques, low-fat food choices

Premenstrual Syndrome

 Caused by changes in the level of serotonin and fluid shifts
 Physical and emotional symptoms
 Occurs in women age 20-40
 Symptoms include: depression, angry outbursts, anxiety, headache, bloating, unclear
thinking
 Tx: counseling, exercise, change in eating habits, antidepressants (SSRI)

Endometriosis

 Uterine tissue implantation outside the uterine cavity (on an ovary)
 Monthly menstruation/bleeding occurs out of place causing scars; possibly infertility
 Affects women of all ages
 Symptoms include:pain(prior to mentruation), pelvic tenderness, painful sexual
intercourse
 TX: like dysmenorrhea, endostatins, removal of adhesions

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

 excessive bleeding
 Due to hormonal imbalance - no ovulation occurs → increase progesterone →
uterus overgrowth occurs →shedding of uterine lining (heavy bleeding)
 TX: hormone manipulation, NSAIDS, D&C, endometrial ablation

Menopause

 Normal cessation of menstrual periods
 Amenorrhea for 12 months
 Ovaries no longer produce estrogen
 S/S: hot flashes, vaginitis, menstrual irregularity
 TX: HRT (oral, transdermal, intravaginal), exercise, calcium supplements

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

 Exotoxins produced from bacteria cross the vaginal mucosa and enter bloodstream
 Related to use of tampons
 S/S: quick onset of fever, hypotension, sunburn-like rash in eyes/skin
 TX: remove infection source, fluid balance restoration, IV antibiotics, pressors

Uterine Prolapse

 Downward displacement of uterus
 Decrease of pelvic support
 Occur in stages
 S/S: painful intercourse, backache, pressure on pelvis
 TX: pelvic support to elevate uterus (pessaries/spheres), estrogen therapy, surgery

Total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH)

 Presence of small fibroids on uterus
 Removal of uterus & cervix through vagina

Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH)

 Present of large leimyomas
 Removal of uterus & cervix via bikini incision

Surgery - POST-OP

 Incision/site, bleeding, dressing assessment
 Assess pain, vital signs, labs (esp. H&H,) fluid intake
 INTERVENTIONS
 Cough & deep breathing, incentive spirometry, early ambulation
 Emotional supports, community resources

Endometrial Cancer

- inner uterine lining
 Most common; slow growth; bleeding leads to early detection
 S/s: postmenopausal bleeding

Cervical Cancer

squamous/columnar cells transform to cancerous cells (transformation zone)
 Caused by HPV exposure to cells on outside of cervix
 S/s: May present as warts

Ovarian Cancer

- tumors growing on ovary surface
 Rapid growing, spread quickly
 Metastasize to distant sites via blood/lymph circ.
 May be linked to excessive estrogen exposure
 Leading cause of death of reproductive cancers
 S/s: abdominal pain, GI disturbances
 Low survival rate - diagnosed in later stages

Cancer Treatments

 Vary amongst cancers
 Chemotherapy
 Radiation
 Surgical procedures
 Palliative care
SUPPORT, SUPPORT, SUPPORT!!

Assessment

 Pap smears, abnormal bleeding, discharge,
Abdominal/back pain, gas, incontinence, external appearance
 Family support
 Knowledge of cancer and overall health
 Pelvic exam: speculum, lubricant
 Inspected for color, shape, dilation, herpes, discharge, nodules, masses, bleeding

Nursing Diagnosis

 Anxiety and Fear
 Acute Pain
 Anticipatory Grieving  Risk for Sexual Dysfunction
 Ineffective Coping
 Potential for Hemorrhage

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