second great awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
ralph waldo emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
henry david thoreau
United States writer and social critic (1817-1862)
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
joseph henry noyes
Helped found the Oneida Community
Landscape artist who became a leader of the Hudson River School of painting/ known for painting nature scenes around the Hudson River Valley
Central figure in the Hudson River School, pupil of Thomas Cole, known for his landscapes and for painting colossal views of exotic places
hudson river school
the first coherent school of American art
United States writer remembered for his stories (1783-1859)
james fennimore cooper
Found the gold in Mt. Davidson, Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
wrote the scarlet letter about a puritan adulteress; he also wrote about the concepts of evil, sin and death
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Written by influential Ohioan William McGuffey, a powerful teacher-preacher. The grade-school readers sold 122 million copies. McGuffey's Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
elizabeth cady stanton
United States suffragist and feminist
seneca falls convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
susan B. anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
william lloyd garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.