What is more important, surface area, or volume?
What is true?
True or false. Smaller animals have higher BMR rates than larger animals do?
What is basic metabolic rate?
The rate at which an animal consumes oxygen while at rest, with an empty stomach, under normal temperature and moisture conditions.
What is metabolic rate?
The overall rate of energy consumption by and individual.
What is flattening, folding and branching?
If a cell relies on diffusion, it usually has a shape that increases its surface area relative to its volume through what?
What are lamellae?
Involved with flattening.Thin sheets of epithelial cells that provide this organ with an extremely high surface area relative to its volume.
What are villi?
Narrow projections that extend from the folds.
What is folding?
In portions of the digestive tract where nutrients diffuse into the body.
What are capillaries?
Involved in branching. A system of small, thin-walled blood cells.
What is homeostasis?
The stability in the chemical and physical conditions within animal's cells, tissues, and organs.
What is regulating and conforming?
What 2 types of homeostasis are there?
What is a set point?
A normal or target value for the controlled variable.
What is a sensor, integrator and effector?
What 3 general components is the homeostasis system based on?
What is a sensor?
A structure that senses some aspect of the external or internal environment.
What is an integrator?
Evaluates the incoming sensory information and makes an unconscious decision on whether a response is necessary to achieve homeostasis.
What is an effector?
Any structure that helps restore the desired internal condition.
What is true?
True or false. Without the sensor, integrator or effector, homeostasis in impossible?
What is conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation?
What are the 4 ways animals exchange heat?
What is conduction?
The direct transfer of heat between two physical bodies that are in contact with each other. Ex: Turtle sitting on a warm rock.
What is convection?
Heat is exchanged between a solid and a liquid or gas. Ex: Heat loss as wind blows on your skin.
What is radiation?
The transfer of heat between two bodies that are not in direct physical contact.
What is evaporation?
The phase change that occurs when liquid water becomes a gas. Leads only to heat loss!
What is the small intestine?
A long tube that is folded into a compact space between the stomach and the last major section of the digestive tract, the large intestine.
What are microvilli?
Part of the intestine that consist of tiny protrusions from the surface of an epithelial cell that increase the surface area for absorption of substances.
What are lacteal?
Part of the intestine that consists of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
What is the mouth and nose?
For most tracheal vetebrates, where does air enter through?
What is a lung?
The enfolding of the throat that are used for gas exchange.
What is the trachea?
Carries the inhaled air to narrower tubes called bronchi.
What is the bronchi?
One pair of large tubes that leads from the trachea to each lung.
What is inhalation?
What happens when the diaphragm contracts?
What is exhalation?
What happens when the diaphragn and rib muscles relax?
What is a pulmonary artery?
The artery that sends blood out to the lungs.
What is a heart murmur?
Backflow that reduces the organ's efficiency.
What is the pulmonary vein?
A short, thin-walled vein that carries oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the heart.
What is the nervous system?
In invertebrates the electrical response is triggered from where?
What is a group of cells in the heart?
In vertebrates the electrical response is triggered by what?
What is the atrium and the ventricle?
In ANIMALS with closed circulatory systems, what does the heart contain?
What is the ventricle?
Thick wall that generates the force required to propel blood out of the heart and through the circulatory system.
What is the atrium?
The thin wall that receives blood.
The chest cavity between your lungs.
In the HUMAN, where is the heart located?
What are pacemaker cells?
Cells that initiate contraction in the vertebrate heart.
What is a sinartrial node?
A region of the right atrium where pacemaker cells are held.
What is true?
True or false. Animals are the most diverse group of organisms on the earth.
What percentage to animals account for of all the known species on earth?
What are sponges?
Bearers of pores, asymmetrical beings, who have no true gut, and live mainly in salt water. A species of 9,000.
What is a osculum?
The place where water exits in the sponge.
What are cnidaria?
Have radial symmetry and are diploblastic beings. Often alternate between polyop and medusa forms, have a true gut, and often contain tenticles that are layered with stinging cells used to catch food or ward off predators.
What are jelly fish?
What is and example of a cnidaria?
What is diploblastic?
Double tissue layered.
What is radial symmetry?
This means that if you divide them into two halves they are still mirror images of each other.
What are acoelomates?
Double layered individuals that lack coelo.
What are eucoelomates?
Triple layered individuals that have a coelo.
What are protostome?
Mouth first animals.
What are humans and starfish?
The 2 major phila that are deuterostomes.
What are arthropods/insects?
Which phylum of animals have the largest number of known species?
What are angiosperms?
Which phylum of plants have the largest number of known species?
What are trematoda?
(Flukes) Parasites of animals (example, Schistosoma)
What are cestoda?
Tapeworms that are even more greatly modified parasites of animals.
What are turbellaria?
Free living worms (Example: Planaria).
What is the endosmbiosis theory?
States that chloroplasts and mitochondria are the result of years of evolution initiated by the endocytosis of bacteria and blue-green algae aka cyanobacterium.
What are amoeba?
The traditional single celled things. Almost everyone's image of what a single celled eukaryote cell looks like.
What are plasmodial slime molds?
Thought to be social amoebas. They are representations of how to get big. This is a representation of only having one cell that grows and grows and never divides.
What is dictyostelium?
Representation of our way of getting big. (Which is having cells that divide and grow, divide and grow and repeat).
What are red algae?
Their color comes from the particular photosynthetic pigment that they have. Have a greater abundance of red pigments. Closely related the phcobylins that cyanobacterium have.
What is primary growth in apical meristems?
As apical cells divide, enlarge, and root and shoot tips, they extend the plant body outward and explore new space.
What are protoderm, groundmeristem and procambium?
Apical meristems include what 3 distinct population of cells?
What is the protoderm?
Gives rise to the dermal tissue system.
What is the groundmeristem?
Gives rise to the ground tissue system.
What is the procambium?
Gives rise to the vascular tissue system.
What is the zone of cellular division?
Contains the apical meristem, where cells are actively dividing, along with the protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium, where additional cell division occurs.
What is the zone of cellular elongation?
Made up of cells that are recently derived from the primary meristematic tissues and actively increasing in length. Most responsible for the movement of roots through the soil.
What is the zone of cellular maturation?
Where older cells complete their differentiation into dermal, vascular, and ground tissues. The most important root segment in terms of water and nutrient absorption.
What are green algae?
Good deal of ecological significance (Because they are a fairly large group). They are the sister group to the land plants. Land plants which share the most recent common ancestor to the true plants.
What is true sex?
A cycle where part of your life you spend as a diploid, part of it as a haploid.
What is meiosis?
Takes you from diplid to haploid.
What is syngamy?
Takes your from haploid to a diploid.
What is alveolata?
Sac-like alveoli that form continuous (supporting?) layer under plasma membrane.Due to plasmodim, these guys have the most complex life cycle of any living organism according to professor Burke.
What are dino-flagellates?
Are autotrophic organisms that at a photosynthetic level t serve well being at the bottom of the food chain.They are the culprits of the red tides.
What is zooxanthellae?
Algae that live inside the bodies of corals.
What are oomycota?
Water molds, white rusts, downy mildews, etc that mostly live in freshwater, some are parasites.
What is the potato leaf blight phytopthora?
A type of oomycota that resulted in the great potato famine of the 1840's in Ireland. The reason why Irish had to migrate to the United States. In 5 years 1/8 people died, and 25% of the people left the country.
What are brown algae?
These protists start out as a single cell and just keep growing without the cells dividing. They have a continuous interconnected cytoplasm, with multiple nuclei
and are the dominant "seaweeds" of cool temperate oceans.
What is coencytic?
Cells that grow and don't divide.
What are v. rhizaria?
Means branching or rooting. This comes from the fact that like amoebas, they have little excretions from the cell that stick out and attract to the cell.
What is pseudopodia?
Means false feet.
What is actinopoda?
Long sort of extensions of the shell that look like they are extending out.
What are formaniferans?
Predators that are very abundant and significant. Mainly oceanic organisms. When they die, their calcium carbonate shell will take a very long time to sink to the bottom of the ocean and accumulate their. This has made them the most important part of the Earth's limestone rocks.
What are choanoflagellates?
What is the group that is actually the sister group to animals?
Which of the following is most related to humans?
What are spores?
In the sexual cycle of a plant, what does meiosis directly produce?
What is an amniotic egg?
An adaptation linked to reptlies that can do what plants can't. Can engage in gas exchange, while still allowing the water to be kept in.
What is directional selection?
The form of natural selection that most directly produces consistent evolutionary change.
What is allopatric speciation?
The most common form of speciation overall?
What is alternation of generations?
A plant life cycle that includes both a multicellular gametophyte and a multicellular sporophyte.
What is the switch from dominant gametophyte to dominant sporophyte?
Which step in the plant life cycle is the one most directly responsible for plants being able to grow as tall as trees?
What 4 things do chordates have in common?
Notochord, Dorsal, hollow nerve cord, Pharynx with gill slits and Post-anal/ muscular tail.
What are analogies?
Characteristics that are shared by a species due to convergent evolution?
What are homologies?
Characteristics that are shared by a species because both retained them from the the same common ancestor.