Introduction to U.S. Government Final Exam Studyguide

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An overview of everything studied over the course of the semester in Introduction to U.S. Government.

specific violations of political liberties

The list of complaints against King George III and his ministers in the Declaration of Independence spoke of what?

ARE

An important theme in the Declaration of Independence is that governments ____ bound by their own laws.

too narrow and could not be easily enforced

The powers granted to the government by the Articles of Confederation (the nation's first government) were ____________________.

all

The approval of _______ the member states was necessary in order to amend the Articles of Confederation.

Shay's Rebellion

What event took place in January 1787 and had a major impact on the formation and success of the Constitutional Convention by encouraging attendance by delegates fearing the collapse of state governments?

Philadelphia, PA

The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was held in:

Connecticut

The delegates from what state proposed the Great Compromise?

few important powers

The Articles of Confederation granted the central government a _______________, but no vast powers.

not

The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan were ____ the same.

"The Federalist" papers

Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison were the authors of _________________.

bicameral

Congress is a _____________ legislature.

the separation of powers and federalism

The American version of representative democracy was based on two major principles. They are __________________.

excesses of democracy, or pure majority rule, that they had seen in their own states.

The framers deliberately chose a republican, or representative, form of government with divided powers because they feared the

3

There are __ branches to our federal government.

James Madison

The primary author of the United States Constitution was ____________.

Tenth

The __________ Amendment granted the states much police power.

Thomas Jefferson

_______________ was not present at the Constitutional Convention when the U.S. Constitution was written.

realized

The Antifederalists voiced concerns about a strong national government, including the fear that the government would tax it's citizens heavily. Their fears have been largely __________.

Articles of Confederation

The first governing document of the United States was the

original U.S. Constitution

The __________________ included specific guarantees of individual liberties including: privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus, Prohibition of a bill of attainder, and Prohibition of ex post facto laws.

56

How many people attended the Second Continental Congress (signing of the Declaration of Independence)?

55

How many people attended the Constitutional Convention where the U.S. Constitution was signed?

would not

Without the Bill of Rights, the states would/would not have ratified Constitution?

False

True/False The term "United States of America" is found only in the U.S. Constitution.

a 2/3 approval vote of the Senate and the House of Reps plus 3/4 of the states is needed.

In order to amend the Constitution:

True

True/False: The Bill of Rights was intended to limit the power of the federal government.

a federal system

A system of government in which a national government and state governments share power within the same system is:

the "Necessary and Proper" Clause and the "Elastic" Clause

The language in Article I of the U.S. Constitution that Congress shall have the power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers" is commonly referred to as what?

True

True/False: Federalism was intended to protect personal liberties.

Devolution

When the national government delegates functions such as welfare, health care, and job training to the states, it is referred to as:

True

True/False: States do NOT have the right of nullification.

Dual federalism

_______________ is a view of federalism in which the national and state governments are separate and independent from each other.

True

True/False: Most mandates concern civil rights and environmental protection.

True

True/False: Since the adoption of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, the single most persistent source of political conflict has been the relations between the national and state governments.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Which court decision established the national government's supremacy over the states?

True

True/False: Land grants were designed to finance school construction and educational expenses.

True

True/False: Most commerce is regulated at the national/federal era.

use the funds at their own discretion.

A block grant is a transfer of cash from the national government to state or local governments in which those governments

a confederation.

A loose collection of states in which the principal power lies at the individual state level is known as:

mandate

The Americans with Disabilities Act enacted by Congress in 1990, which required all businesses and state and local governments to provide the disabled with equal access to services, employment, buildings, and transportation systems, is an example of what?

the clear and present danger test

During World War I, Charles Schenck violated the Espionage Act by circulating materials designed to obstruct the draft. The test to determine whether the First Amendment protected him was:

initiating legal action

The NAACP's most important role in the civil rights movement has been what?

Principles themselves may be in conflict with culture.

Civil liberties become a major issue for all of the following reasons except what?

that the libelous statement was false; that the libelous statement damaged the reputation or character of another person

To find someone guilty of libel, one must show ____________ and _______________.

apply the Bill of Rights to the states

The Fourteenth Amendment was eventually used to:

True

True/False: The right of free speech or expression, although not absolute, enjoys a higher status than the other rights granted by the U.S. Constitution.

True

True/False: Although we often think of "civil liberties" as a set of principles that protect the freedoms of all of us all of the time, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights actually contain a list of competing rights and duties.

True

True/False: The Bill of Rights was originally intended to limit the powers of only the federal government.

Exclusionary rule

What was the rule established by the U.S. Supreme Court in Mapp v. Ohio (1961) that evidence gathered in violation of the U.S. Constitution cannot be used in a trial—it must be excluded?

things in other rooms of the house

During an arrest, the police may legally search all of the following except:

involvement must have a secular purpose, primary effect neither advances nor inhibits religion, does not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion

The three-part test recently developed by U.S. Supreme Court in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) to decide under what circumstances government involvement in religious activities is proper (i.e., constitutional) include which of the following?

True

True/False: In most instances the U.S. Supreme Court tended to uphold legislation passed during times of and as a result of various crises that restricted the liberty of some persons.

False

True/False: Beginning in the mid-1960s, the Supreme Count began to rule that there was NO zone of individual privacy into which the government could NOT intrude.

True

True/False: The pertinent question regarding civil rights is not whether the government has the authority to treat different people differently; it is whether such differences in treatment are reasonable.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Probably the most significant and far reaching of all legislation enacted surrounding the civil rights movement was what?

De Jure Segregation

What is another name for segregation created by law, such as, a school district establishing a blacks-only school to teach all black children and a whites-only school to teach all white children?

Strict Scrutiny Standard

What is the standard by which the U.S. Supreme Court judges suspect classifications, such as, race, when determining whether there is alleged discrimination against those classifications?

True

True/False: The primary effect of the Hyde Amendment was to deny Medicaid funds for abortions for low income women.

Political Culture

A distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.

Political Ideology

More or less consistent sets of views concerning the policies government ought to pursue; a comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or ideas concerned with the form and role of government, e.g., conservative, liberal, or radical

Political Efficacy

The sense that citizens have the capacity to understand and influence political events.

Adam Smith

"Wealth of Nations"

the minimum requirement of a democracy

A degree of tolerance toward political discussion without too much oppression is:

Johnson's

In the 1960s President ____________ Great Society moved beyond the New Deal.

compromise is almost impossible

One of the ways in which the culture war differs from other political disputes is that:

The family

The most important source of political values in the United States is probably what?

John Locke

Liberalism can be traced to _____________.

individual rights

The adversarial, contentious spirit of U.S. society is related most closely to Americans' belief in:

established religion

Religious diversity in the United States was largely the result of the absence of a(n):

True

True/False: Populism was a reaction by farmers, especially against railroads and banks.

Orthodox and progressive

What are the two primary opposing camps in the American "culture war?"

True

True/False: In a comparative study, political scientists Almond and Verba found that Americans had a stronger sense of civic duty than the citizens of the other countries surveyed.

Protestant (work) ethic

The notion that individuals should work hard, save their money, and avoid dependence on the state is sometimes referred to as the:

Alexis de Tocqueville

Who was the French observer who noted the influence of Democracy in a variety of contexts?

a sovereign power

According to the text, ________________ is essential to protect people from one another.

False

True/False: According to the text, when economic or occupational self-interest is at stake, most people press for programs that serve the broader interests of the nation as a whole.

Genuine competition for leadership

What is the key to the success of a representative democracy?

False

True/False: According to the text, governments do NOT really have to protect citizens against threats from other societies or governments.

True

True/False: Political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution is referred to as legitimacy.

Placing an issue on the governmental agenda and deciding what to do about it once it's there

Policymaking involves which stage(s)?

True

True/False: Karl Marx, C. Wright Mills, and Max Weber are all an important source of theories explaining political elites.

True

True/False: The Senate is the only institution that has NOT played an increasingly important role in the agenda-setting process in government.

False

True/False: Every government policy goes through a formal evaluation procedure.

True

True/False: The role of the National Security Council is to coordinate the overseas activities of various federal agencies.

True

True/False: The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is more an advisory than a command body.

four separate and competing military branches

Congress's desire to ensure civilian control of the military after World War II led it to create:

The uniformed heads of each of the military services, plus a chairman and a non-voting vice-chairman.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) include

majoritarian politics

Issues regarding a nuclear-test-ban treaty, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance, and a Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) agreement are all examples of:

Department of Defense

The National Security Act of 1947 created what?

National Security Council.

Coordination of the different agencies that have overseas activities is handled by the:

president

The National Security Council is chaired by the:

True

True/False: The U.S. Supreme Court has fairly consistently supported the view that the federal government has powers in the conduct of foreign and military policy beyond those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

True

True/False: Foreign policy takes many forms—discussions are held, treaties are signed, organizations are joined—but in many cases it depends on the ability to use military force.

the people's branch

Congress is sometimes referred to as:

435

The House of Representatives is currently made up of how many members?

True

True/False: The Constitution does not say anything about congressional districts, so it has been up to Congress to decide how many representatives each state would have (provided that each state had at least one).

Christmas-tree bill

A bill that has many nongermane amendments tacked on is called a:

get a bill stalled in committee onto the floor

A discharge petition is used by the House of Representatives to:

Speaker of the House

Who is first in line to preside over the affairs of the House of Representatives?

Caucus

What is an association of members of Congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional or economic interest?

malapportionment

What is the name of the problem that arose in history whereby boundaries of political districts for seats in the House of Representatives were drawn in such a manner that districts were very unequal in population?

Vice President of the United States

Who is first in line to preside over the affairs of the Senate?

True

True/False: A result of the recent polarization of Congress is that members of Congress (especially in the House) are more likely to challenge, investigate, and denounce each other.

pork-barrel legislation

Bills that give tangible benefits (such as, highways, dams, post offices) to constituents in hope of winning their votes in return are called what?

majority party whip

A member of the Senate has just been elected to a position that requires him to keep the majority leader informed about the opinions of other party members. He has just been elected:

They must originate in the House of Representatives.

Which of the following statements about revenue bills is correct?

majority leader

If you wished to study the real leadership office in the Senate, you would most likely focus on the:

sequential referral

The ________ process allows the Speaker to send a bill to a second committee after the first committee is finished acting on it.

True

True/False: Most bills die in committee.

In the committees in both houses

Where is the real work of Congress done?

a conference committee.

When a bill passes the House and Senate in substantially different forms, the differences are resolved in:

cloture

A three-fifths majority vote in the Senate to end debate is called:

logrolling

When members of Congress exchange votes to help each other it is known as:

politics and public opinion

The greatest source of presidential power is:

House of Representatives

If no candidate receives a majority of the Electoral College vote, the _______ selects the president.

the White House office, the Executive Office of the President, and the Cabinet

The ability of a presidential assistant to affect the president is governed by the rule of propinquity (i.e., proximity), and the three degrees of propinquity surrounding Presidential appointments include which of the following?

high crimes and misdemeanors

A president can be impeached for treason, bribery, and:

serve as commander in chief of the armed forces and take care that the laws be faithfully executed

The powers a President can exercise in his own right without formal legislative approval include

True

True/False: Many presidential nominees and appointees are identified as "in and outers" because they are part of the "revolving door" of hires exchanged between government, interest groups, and various law firms.

16 months

The president's budget must be prepared _________ before it is enacted.

True

True/False: A bill that is not signed or vetoed within ten (10) days while Congress is still in session becomes law automatically, without the president's approval.

to serve as acting president in the case of presidential disability, to name a new vice president if he is in charge, and the new vice president must be confirmed by a majority in Congress

The Twenty-fifth Amendment allows/requires the vice president

preside over the Senate

The constitutional duty of the vice president is to:

True

True/False: Senior White House staff members are typically drawn from the ranks of the president's campaign.

True

True/False: The U.S. Constitution DOES NOT give to the president the power of executive privilege, i.e., a claim made by a president that he or she is not obliged to divulge private communications between himself/herself and his/her principal advisers (a privilege of confidentiality).

make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws

When the text speaks of the discretionary authority of appointed officials, it means their authority to:

True

True/False: There are 15 major departments (including the newly created Department of Homeland Security established after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks) that compose the Presidential Cabinet, and by custom, cabinet officers are the heads of these departments; the president appoints the heads of the cabinet departments, and the Senate must consent to these appointments.

True

True/False: The Pendleton Act called for the transfer of jobs from patronage to merit.

True

True/False: The power of the bureaucracy depends less on its size and more on the extent of its discretionary authority.

competitive service

The term for federal officials who are appointed only after they have passed a written examination administered by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or met certain selection criteria, such as, training, educational attainments, or prior experiences, devised by the hiring agency and approved by the OPM is called what?

False

True/False: The U.S. Constitution clearly provides for the creation by the president of departments and bureaus to carry out the laws created by Congress.

government-wide constraints on bureaucracy

The Administrative Procedure Act (1946) and Freedom of Information Act (1966) are examples of what?

fourth branch of government

Bureaucracies are often considered the:

professional training

A personal attribute that has been shown to have a clear effect on bureaucratic behavior is:

committee clearance

When congressional committees require that agency decisions be submitted to them before the agency implements them, the committees are exercising the power of:

related state agencies

Most federal agencies must share their functions with whom/what?

Civil Service Reform Act

The __________ was intended to defend the merit principle and to provide incentives for high-quality work.

False

True/False: Congress does not have the power to compel an individual to appear before a committee during an investigation.

Hatch Act

Which Act banned civil servants from participating in partisan political activity?

issuing a name request

Using the buddy system, an agency can circumvent the usual OPM search process by:

False

True/False: Most of the files and records of agencies cannot be inspected by members of the public.

issue networks

The collection of interest groups, think tanks, policy experts, news reporters, and congressional committees that try to influence agencies are called:

created only the Supreme Court.

The Constitution:

It does not indicate how large the Court should be.

What does the U.S. Constitution have to say about the size of the Supreme Court?

Judicial review

The right of the federal courts to declare laws of Congress and acts of the executive branch void and unenforceable if they are judged to be in conflict with the Constitution is called what?

True

True/False: The solicitor general of the United States is usually the government's lawyer before the Supreme Court.

all cases involving citizens of the same state

Which of the following IS NOT a type of case federal courts can hear ("have jurisdiction over")?

citizens of different states

A diversity case is one involving whom or what?

False

True/False: There is no screening of candidates for the federal bench by the American Bar Association because the Bar Association is private.

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