studying hard leads to good grades, winning office gives you status and popularity
benching a player for having unsportsman like conduct
characters from movies, books, or even tv. can be real or fictional
real people who we observe doing something
contingency between consequence and behavior
who developed social cognitive theory?
who do high school students imitate?
other high school students
what are the basic assumptions of learning according to social cognitive theory?
-people learn by observation
-learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change
-cognitive processes influence motivation as well as learning
-behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated
what are the steps/conditions for modeling?
attention-the learner must pay attention to the model
retention-the learner must be able to remember what the model did
motor reproduction-the learner must be able to reproduce what the model did
motivation-the learner must be motivated to reenact what the model did
what are the factors affecting modeling?
expectation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, models characteristics
what are the ways to facilitate retention component of modeling?
teacher demonstrates and students pay attention, repeats the steps, imitate and practice
is occasional failure good? why?
yes because the learner can learn from his or her mistakes
instructions one gives oneself while performing a complex behavior
keeping a promise, patiently waiting until the end of the day to receive the reinforcement-delay of gratification
process of observing and recording ones own behavior
process of judging ones own performance or behavior
self reinforcement or self punishment that forces a behavior
self imposed contingencies
use of self directed strategies to address complex problems
self regulated problem solving
students who help other students out with problems
what are the steps in problem solving
define the problem
identify several possible solutions
predict the likely consequences of each solution
choose the best solution
identify the steps required to carry out the solution
carry out the steps
evaluate the results
what are the three components of reciprocal causation of behavior?
person environment and behavior
what are the characteristics of motivation?
directs behavior toward particular goals
leads to increased effort and energy in pursuit of those goals
increased initiation and persistence in certain activities
she is motivated by factors external to herself and unrelated to the task she is performing. may want good grades, money, or recognition that particular activities and accomplishments bring. they are motivated to perform a task as a means to an end not as an end in itself
she is motivated by factors within herself and inherent in the task she is performing. Learners may engage in an activity because it gives them pleasure, helps them develop a skill they think is important or seems to be the ethically and morally thing to do .
intense form of intrinsic motivation involving complete absorption in and concentration on a challenging activity
desire to acquire new knowledge or master new skills
desire to demonstrate high ability and to make a good impression
what the teacher expects of the students
personally constructed casual explanation of a particular event such as a success or failure
situations in which expectations for an outcome either directly or indirectly lead to the expected result
self fulfilling prophesy
general fairly persuasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
general belief about the extent to which one is a good capable individual
basic need to feel socially connected to others and to secure others love and respect
need for relatedness
learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged
feeling of mental discomfort caused by new information that conflicts with current knowledge or beliefs.
feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome.
temporary feeling of anxiety elicited by a threatening situation
pattern of responding with anxiety even in non threatening situations
level of anxiety usually relatively low that enhances performance
anxiety of sufficient intensity that it interferes with performance
situation in which a learner believes there is little or no chance of success
situation in which a learner believes that success is possible with sufficient effort
behavior that undermines ones own success as a way of protecting self worth during potentially difficult tasks
awareness of a negative stereotype about ones own group and accompanying uneasiness that low performance will confirm the stereotype