pathophysiology online quizzes 1-4

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rigor mortis

When a nurse observes muscle stifening occuring within 6-14 hrs after death, the nurse should document this finding as ____ present.

it is rich in hydrolytic enzymes and lipids

Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain because:

Pathologic apoptosis

A 50-year-old male intravenous drug user is diagnosed with hepatitis C. Examination of the liver reveals cell death secondary to:

Excessive protein

When the nurse is checking the urinalysis, the finding would alert the nurse to cellular injury is the presence of:

Physiologic

During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, and this is referred to as atrophy.

Gas gangrene

A 50-year-old female became infected with Clostridium bacteria and died a week later. Examination of her red blood cells revealed lysis of membranes. Which of the following was the most likely cause of her death?

Subdural hematoma

A 50-year-old male sustained closed head injury as a result as a result of a motor vehicle accident. CT scan revealed a collection of blood betweenthe inner surface of dura matter and the surface of the brain. Which type of injury will the nurse be caring for?

Complete cessation of respiration and circulation

Confirmation of somatic death is based on:

Metaplasia

A 55 y.o. male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:

compensatory hyperplasia

A 55 y.o. male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver were removed, the remaining cells would undergo:

28 L

A 35 y.o. male weighs 70 kg. Approximately how much of this weight is ICF?

kidneys

Which organ system should the nurse monitor when the pt has long-term potassium deficits?

Decreased muscle mass

While planning care for elderly individuals, the nurse remembers the elderly are at a higher risk for developing dehydration because they have a:

Sodium

A pt has been searching on the internet about natriuretic hormones. When the patient asks the nurse what do these do, how should the nurse respond? Nutriuretic hormones affect the balance of:

Pneumonia

Which finding would support the diagnosis of respiratory acidosis?

Decreased sodium

A 53 y.o. male presents to the ER with lethargy, confusion, and depressed reflexes. His wife indicates that he does not follow the prescribed diet and takes his medication sporadically. Lab results indicate hyperglycemia. Which assessment finding is most likely to occur?

localized edema

A 10 y.o. male is brought to the ER because he is incoherent and semiconscious. CT scan reveals that he is suffering from cerebral edema. This type of edema is referred to as:

renal failure

Which pt should the nurse assess for both hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis? a patient diagnosed with:

1:20

Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because carbonic acid and bicarbonate exist in a ratio of:

Heart

Outcomes of lab tests include an elevated level of natriuretic peptides. Which organ is the priority assessment?

antibodies covered the sites of attachment

A 25 y.o. female has sexual relations with her boyfriend. Later she is told that the boyfriend is infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Testing reveals that she does not have the disease. How is it possible that she did not contract the disease?

Alive, but less infectious.

A person is given an attenuated antigen as a vaccine. When the person asks what was given in the vaccine, how should the nurse respond? The antigen is:

Chemotaxis

The directional migration of leukocytes along a chemical gradient is termed:

Passive

Whent the immunoglobulin crosses the placenta, what type of immunity does the fetus receive?

Anaphylaxis

When a pt presents at the ER for an allergic reaction, the nurse recognizes the most severe consequence of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:

Alloimmune

When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?

IgE

A 10 y.o. male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. The nurse providing care realized this reaction is the result of:

Decreased lactobacillus

A 25 y.o. female presents to her primary care provider reporting vaginal discharge of a white viscous, and foul-smelling substance. She reports that she has been taking antibiotics for the past 6 months. Which finding will the nurse most likely see on the microorganism report?

INFs

A 54 y.o. male IV drug user is diagnoses with chronic hep C. Testing revealed that he is a candidate for treatment. Which of the following could be used to treat his condition?

An excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing agent.

When a pt asks the nurse what hypersensitivity is, how should the nurse respond? Hypersensitivity is best defined as:

Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weight loss.

An 11 y.o. male is newly diagnoses with type 1 DM. Which classic symptoms should the nurse assess the pt for?

insulin deficiency promotes lipid metabolism and ketone formation

A 19 y.o. with type 1 DM has admitted to the hospital with the following lab values: serum glucose 500mg/dl (high), urine glucose and ketones 4+ (high), and arterial pH 7.20 (low). Her parents state that she has been sick with the "flu" for a week. Which of the following statements best explains her acidotic state?

Decreased insulin causes hyperglycemia and osmotic diuresis.

A 19 y.o. female with type 1 DM was admitted to the hospital with altered consciousness and the following lab values: serum glucose 500 mg/dl (high) and serum K+ 2 (low). Her parents state that she has been sick with the flu for a week. THe diagnosis is hyperosmolar hyperglycermia nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS). What relationship do these values have with her insulin deficiency?

Hypoglcemia caused by increased exercise.

A 13 y.o. male who uses insulin to control his type 1 diabetes experiences hunger, lightheadedness, tachycardia, pallor, headache, and confusing during gym class. The most probable cause of these symptoms is:

Immune destruction of the pancreas

A 12 y.o. female is newly diagnosed with type 1 DM. When the parents ask, what causes this, what is the nurse's best response?

Hyperglycemia

When a staff member asks the nurse what causes the chronic complications of DM such as microvascular and macrovascular disease, how should the nurse respond? These complications are primarily related to:

Hyperinsulinemia (p. 462)

When a pt asks what causes hyperglycemia in type 2 DM, how should the nurse respond? Hyperglycemia is a result of:

neurogenic diabetes insipidus

A 50 y.o. male pt presents with polyuria and extreme thirst. He was given exogenous ADH. For which of the following conditions would this treatment be effective.

monitor long-term serum glucose control.

A nurse in reviewing lab results for glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1C) levels. A nurse recalls the purpose of this test is to:

fasting plasma glucose levels

A 12 y.o. male is newly diagnosed with type 1 DM. Which of the following tests should the nurse prepare the pt to best confirm the diagnosis?

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