Federal Election Commission
This is one of Mexico's most important electoral institutions, which was formed in 2000 and made independent in 2006. It organizes and runs the federal elections in Mexico. Headed by 9 councilors, this group of people is supposed to be apolitical, but that is rarely the case.The members of the Chamber of Deputies vote for those in this organization, causing it to politically resemble Mexico's lower house.
Election of 2006
It was a close call between PAN's Calderon and PRD's Obrador. The polls had shown Obrador was more likely to the win the presidency, but then Calderon came out and won by a small margin. This upset many citizens who claimed the election was fraud. While fraud was suspected, there was never any hard evidence.
Mid-term Election of 2009
Both PAN and PRD lost a significant number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies. On the other hand, PRI gained almost doubled the amount of seats they had previously held, leading to a PRI dominated legislature.
Rural inhabitants of Mexico, upset about the poor quality of land for farming, lack of other jobs, illiteracy rates, and the overall poverty, rebelled in Chiapas. They asked for jobs, land, education, and health facilities, things that most of Mexico's indigenous and the poverty-stricken rural farmers are in need of.
Massacre at Tlaltelolco
Students and the working class were protesting in Mexico's streets against the high unemployment and the authoritarianism of the government. Government troops opened fire on the peaceful people and over 200 died. This was a symbol that their government was unwilling to listen to their demands, thus beginning a tradition of urban popular movements.
Following postrevolutionary state, Mexico adopted this development strategy. Since the people believed it was the government's responsibility to generate wealth for everyone, the government began to guide the process of industrial and agricultural development. It was up to the government to encourage private investment in order to benefit everyone.
This was a model of industrialization where the government promoted the development of industries in order to help out their people. This was done by encouraging investment, providing tax incentives, and maintaining low rates of inflation.
This was when agriculture production began to grow rapidly due to scientifically improved seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. This caused foreign investment to increase, the middle class to grow, and everyone in Mexico, even the poorer class, to fare better.
This referred to Mexico's impressive economic performance following the Green Revolution and Import Substitution. Health and welfare had improved as well as everyone's lives.
This is the part of the economy where the workers have extreme job insecurity. These workers produce goods and services or perform services.
This is the process in which the government incorporates an individual or smaller group into their ranks by giving them special favors.
President of Mexico since 2006. He represents the PAN, the most conservative of Mexico's three most predominant parties. He's criticized for his failure to deal with the drug cartels. He has, however, improved the infrastructure of Mexico and under his direction, the educational system in Mexico has greatly improved.
The former Head of Government for the Federal District (basically the mayor of Mexico City). He is the PRD candidate for 2012, despite losing in 2006 to Felipe Calderon. He accused Calderon's appointment of being fraudulent and staged mass protest.
Newly Industrialized Countries
They are countries that have not yet reached First World status. They are much closer to being considered First World than most. They are usually characterized by rapid economic growth and industrialization.
This is the legislative branch of the Mexican government and is bicameral. It is divided into the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Members cannot serve two consecutive terms.
This division of Congress is made up 128 senators; 3 for each district plus 32 senators based on their party's share of the national vote. Senators can only serve for 6 years and cannot serve two consecutive terms. It is the upper house of congress. PAN only has 52 seats in the Senate, yet it has the plurality.
Chamber of Deputies
The Chamber of Deputies consists of 500 members. 300 members are decided by single-member-districts and 200 are decided by proportional representation. Elections are held every 3 years and deputies cannot serve consecutive terms. The PRI currently has the plurality in the Chamber of Deputies with 241 seats. The last election was in 2009.
This is a state owned enterprise that produces and sells petroleum. It is a huge source of income for the Mexican government; its revenue is currently 80.4 billion doll-hairs. Both Vicente Fox and Phil Calderon have made attempts to open the company to the public but congress shot them down.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
This political party has traditionally dominated the Mexican political scene. They were borderline authoritarian for many years. In 2000 Ernesto Zedillo finally broke the streak when he ceded power to Vicente Fox. During its seventy year run as the ruling party of Mexico it was constantly accused of corruption and voter fraud, the president got to choose his successor which made it hard to be fair. It was originally a leftist party but over the years has become moderate.
National Action Party (PAN)
This party is considered the most conservative in Mexico and has been in power since 2000. Both Vicente Fox and Felipe Calderon belong to this party.
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)
This is the most liberal of the three predominant political parties. In 2006, Lopez Obrador ran for presidency with this party and lost by a very small margin. He was a sore loser so he incited huge protests against the results. He plans to run again in 2012 with a coalition party.
A person of mixed white, Amerindian and sometimes African descent.
The largest groups are the Maya of the south, and the Nahuatl in the central regions. Then there are possibly hundreds of smaller groups throughout the country. Sometimes they also serve as a cleavage in Mexico's nationalism.
The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico.
- Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated (1810) against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.
-Dictator who dominated Mexico,
-permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants.
1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos. KEY POINTS OF REVOLUTION:
-Rural landowners lost control of their land
-Limited foreign investment
-Discouraged political violence
-Strong central government
Leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, he led farmers from the south to revolt against Porfirio Diaz; faught for farmers' rights; gathered army in southern Mexico and urged farmers to join; Liberation Army of the South.
A rebellious leader during the Mexican Revolution. His ordered attacks on U.S. citizens caused some unrest along the border.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.