A pattern of evolution in which most change in appearance takes place during a relatively short period of time fits the ______ model of speciation.
Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelles evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Why is RNA thought to have been the first genetic material?
RNA is capable of self-replication; DNA is not.
Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
strains of bacteria that are resistant to these drugs will become more widespread
The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides. This is an example of ______.
While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?
Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
The population is not evolving.
In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was _____.
Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of ______.
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a "catch-all" category called ______.
All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population make up that population's ______.
Which of the following include the two classes of poisons produced by pathogenic bacteria?
endotoxins and exotoxins
The idea that life regularly arises from nonliving matter is referred to as ______.
Natural selection can be defined as ______.
a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce than other individuals
Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?
Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.
What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?
abiotic synthesis of monomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides
On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?
being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Which of the following would likely be the most difficult to kill were you to can your own food?
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.
Which of the following describes allopatric speciation? A) A male horse and a female donkey mate, producing a sterile
A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. Through time the two
subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.
All prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that photosynthesize fit into which nutritional category?
The original source of all genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ______.
The absence of ______ in the primitive atmosphere was essential to the origin of life on Earth.
Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?
genus, family, order, class, phylum
Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?
eating more beef and less chicken
The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.
C02 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth
What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?
They all have a notochord sometime during the life cycle.
Why does it make sense that many fruits are green when their seeds are immature?
They are harder to see and thus less likely to be eaten than other fruits.
Like plants, fungi have ______; however, in plants they are composed of ______, whereas in fungi they are composed of ______.
cell walls . . . cellulose . . . chitin
Which of the following correctly illustrates the sequence of the origin of modern groups of plants?
bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?
Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?
With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?
Among vertebrates, the unique feature of lampreys and hagfish is the ______. A) absence of a post-anal tail
absence of jaws
What is a population?
a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area
Aquatic organisms ______.
may experience problems with the solute concentration of the surrounding fluid
Why are most energy pyramids limited to 3-5 levels?
There is insufficient energy to support more levels
Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?
In the food chain (grass -> antelope -> human -> lion), the human is ____
In terms of population, what is boom and bust cycling?
when a population oscillates around the carry capacity of its environment
The present rate of species loss _____
is as much as 1,000 times higher than it has been in the last 100,000 years
In order to asses the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the different number of species as well as
the relative abundance of different species
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of
a density-independent factor
In the absence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows a _____ growth model.
Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?
In most developed countries, overall population growth rates _____
are near 0, population size is stable
Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ____
few offspring and good parental care
Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines and thorns because the plants _____
cannot run away from herbivores
The sum total of a populations of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its _____
What is one way that chemical flow and energy cycling differ?
energy flow is unidirectional, chemical elements can be recycled