Biology 102 Final - Old Test Questions

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A pattern of evolution in which most change in appearance takes place during a relatively short period of time fits the ______ model of speciation.

punctuated equilibrium

The science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms is called ______.

taxonomy

Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?

Founder effect

Genetic drift is the result of ______.

chance

According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelles evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?

mitochondria and chloroplasts

Homology is evidence of ______.

common ancestry

Why is RNA thought to have been the first genetic material?

RNA is capable of self-replication; DNA is not.

What name is given to the single supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic?

Pangea

Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.

strains of bacteria that are resistant to these drugs will become more widespread

______ is an example of bioremediation.

The use of prokaryotes to treat sewage

The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides. This is an example of ______.

natural selection

Which one of the following is the only domain that contains eukaryotes?

Eukarya

While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?

Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

The population is not evolving.

______ is the study of the evolutionary relationships of organisms, past and present.

Systematics

In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was _____.

natural selection

Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?

stabilizing selection

The modern synthesis was a fusion of ______.

genetics and evolutionary biology

Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of ______.

an exaptation

Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a "catch-all" category called ______.

protists

All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population make up that population's ______.

gene pool

Which of the following include the two classes of poisons produced by pathogenic bacteria?

endotoxins and exotoxins

The biological species concept cannot be applied to ______.

bacteria that only reproduce asexually

The idea that life regularly arises from nonliving matter is referred to as ______.

spontaneous generation

Which of the following is a species name?

sapiens

Natural selection can be defined as ______.

a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce than other individuals

Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?

Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.

The smallest unit of evolution is the ______.

population

Which prokaryotic group is most closely related to eukaryotes?

domain Archaea

What organisms are most numerous on Earth?

prokaryotes

What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?

abiotic synthesis of monomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides

Which protozoan group consists solely of parasitic forms?

apicomplexans

What does Darwinian fitness measure?

reproductive success

On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?

being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Which of the following would likely be the most difficult to kill were you to can your own food?

endospores

A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.

pre-zygotic barrier

Bacilli are ______ prokaryotes.

rod-shaped

Which of the following describes allopatric speciation? A) A male horse and a female donkey mate, producing a sterile

A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. Through time the two
subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.

All prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that photosynthesize fit into which nutritional category?

photoautotrophs

The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______.

prokaryotic...eukaryotic

Which of the following is a component of the fossil record?

bones of extinct whales

A slimy layer of bacteria coating a surface is also known as a ________.

biofilm

What theory states that all living things are composed of cells?

cell theory

New branches form on the tree of life through the process of _____. A) speciation

speciation

The original source of all genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ______.

mutation

The absence of ______ in the primitive atmosphere was essential to the origin of life on Earth.

oxygen

Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?

genus, family, order, class, phylum

Analogous structures are evidence of ______.

convergent evolution

Prokaryotes reproduce by means of ______.

binary fission

Characteristics shared by both snakes and birds include ______.

the amniotic egg

Sharks are a type of ______.

cartilaginous fish

______ are the most diverse group of arthropods.

insects

Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?

eating more beef and less chicken

A(n) ______ is an example of a mollusc that does not have a shell.

octopus

The ______ helps plants retain water.

cuticle

Which of these adaptations to a terrestrial existence evolved most recently?

seeds

The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.

C02 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth

Which of the following is abiotic?

a rock

Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes _____.

tundra

Which of these human characteristics evolved first?

upright posture

Water-storing plants and deeply-rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ______.

deserts

The effect of deforestation is to ______.

increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

What are estuaries?

regions where fresh water and salt water mix

What name is given to the seafloor?

benthic realm

What does the term tetrapod mean?

having 4 feet

How do sponges differ from all other animals?

sponges lack true tissues

Where did humans first appear?

Africa

The mobile stage of the cnidarian life cycle is the ______ stage.

medusa

What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?

ecosystem

______ are seedless vascular plants.

ferns

______ are the mammalian group that lay eggs.

Monotremes

Ecology is the study of ______.

interactions between organisms and their environments

What name is given to the open ocean?

pelagic realm

Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?

They all have a notochord sometime during the life cycle.

Swim bladders ______.

help bony fish maintain buoyancy

______ have radial symmetry.

Cnidarians

Why does it make sense that many fruits are green when their seeds are immature?

They are harder to see and thus less likely to be eaten than other fruits.

Like plants, fungi have ______; however, in plants they are composed of ______, whereas in fungi they are composed of ______.

cell walls . . . cellulose . . . chitin

Which of these biomes is maintained by fire?

chaparral

Gametophytes are ______; sporophytes are ______.

haploid...diploid

What are hyphae?

threadlike filaments that make up fungal bodies

What is the primary source of energy for nearly all of Earth's ecosystems?

sunlight

Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi are called ______.

mycorrhizae

Which of the following correctly illustrates the sequence of the origin of modern groups of plants?

bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms

What is the name given to the process by which a larva develops into an adult?

metamorphisis

In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?

photic zone

What important role do fungi play in many ecosystems?

they decompose organic material

Most adult insects have three major body parts or sections. They are the

head, thorax and abdomen

Nearly all ______ are aquatic.

crustaceans

Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a(n) ______.

skull and backbone

A true coelom is ______.

completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm

Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?

oceans

With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?

before/after rain

Among vertebrates, the unique feature of lampreys and hagfish is the ______. A) absence of a post-anal tail

absence of jaws

A(n) ______ is an example of an invertebrate chordate.

lancelet

What is a population?

a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area

Nearly all food plants are classified as ______.

angiosperms

Nutritionally, all fungi are ______.

heterotrophs

Aquatic organisms ______.

may experience problems with the solute concentration of the surrounding fluid

The primary goal of conservation biology is to ___.

counter the loss of biodiversity

Why are most energy pyramids limited to 3-5 levels?

There is insufficient energy to support more levels

Modern conservation science increasingly aims to ___.

sustain entire ecosystems

An assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a _____.

landscape

Integrated pest management ____

advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops

Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?

decomposers

In the food chain (grass -> antelope -> human -> lion), the human is ____

secondary consumer

A demographic tool used to predict a populations future growth is

age structures

The number of individuals of a population unit per area is the

population density

In terms of population, what is boom and bust cycling?

when a population oscillates around the carry capacity of its environment

Humans are ____

omnivores

Species only found in one area of the earth are called _____ species

endemic

The present rate of species loss _____

is as much as 1,000 times higher than it has been in the last 100,000 years

Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______

have long lives

The major abiotic reservoir for phosphorous is

rock

Rate at which organic matter is produced into an ecosystem is its _____

primary productivity

In order to asses the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the different number of species as well as

the relative abundance of different species

What form of carbon is incorporated into organic matter by producers?

CO2

Organisms at the first trophic level are ____

producers

Biomass is the amount of _____ in an ecosystem

organic material in

The ecological footprint of the USA _____

shows Americans consume disproportionate amounts

Bears eat berries, etc....

A food web

The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that _____

are in danger of extinction

An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of

a density-independent factor

Which of these describes a Type II survivorship curve?

relatively constant death rate

As a result of disturbance, a community will ____

undergo succession

In the absence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows a _____ growth model.

exponential

Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?

bacteria

In most developed countries, overall population growth rates _____

are near 0, population size is stable

Which of these organisms are ultimately responsible.....

producers

The death by bubonic plague...

density-dependent factor

Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ____

few offspring and good parental care

Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by ____

all of the above

E.O. Wilson coined the term....

biophilia

The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is ____

biological control

Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines and thorns because the plants _____

cannot run away from herbivores

Small areas that have a large number of endangered species....

biodiversity hot spots

What is a population?

group of same species individuals that occupy the same general area

____ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support

Carrying capacity

Which of the following will decrease population size?

decreasing food supply

Single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ______

habitat destruction and fragmentation

Competition among the same species is _____ competition

intraspecific

An ecological footprint

is a means of understanding resource availability and usage

The sum total of a populations of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its _____

niche

What is one way that chemical flow and energy cycling differ?

energy flow is unidirectional, chemical elements can be recycled

Sustainable development ____

involves all of the above

A movement corridor _____

unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat for a species

A community is composed of

potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms

An example of mutualism....

corals/algae

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