Why did Baddeley conclude there are 2 stores in working memory?
People can do 2 working memory tasks simultaneously if one is visual and one is acoustic.
Phonological loop and its 2 functions
Stores a limited number of sounds for a short period of time (i) storage of acoustic information (ii) rehearsal of information
stores visual and spatial information - images and visual information derived from verbal descriptions.
Which parts of HM's brain were removed?
They removed damaged area of brain from each hemisphere (hippocampus and adjacent areas.
How was his memory affected?
Had amnesia before the surgery and he could not put new info into LTM.
The process of putting new information into permanent storage?
What does H.M.'s case suggest about memory?
1.There is a difference between short and long-term storage. 2. Long-term storage has several aspects: General knowledge, Life memories, Skills, Predispositions, Reflex learning 3.Different types of memories are involved with different parts of the brain.
: Memories of events that happened to a person.; describes events in a person's life.
Knowledge about how to do something
Organized knowledge about the world.
Why make these distinctions between types of memories?
1.Different types of memories have different characteristics. 2.Different brain injuries can affect different types of memories.
Getting information into storage
Getting information out of storage.
Depth of processing:
Deep, meaningful information leads to more permanent retention that shallow sensory processing.
Shallow quality of a word:
visual appearance of the word, sound of a word,
meaning of the word
What is the classic test of depth of processing?
1.Ask the subjects yes or no questions about the words: force shallow or deep processing and flash words on screen.
2.Later, the subjects were tested for recall of the words; didn't know they would be tested.
Why memory is better for deep words:
(1) Distinctiveness: a stimulus is different from other memories. (2) Elaboration: processing new information by associating it with other concepts in permanent memory.
Repeating a stimulus; less likely to be permanently stored than when you use elaborative rehearsal.
Another name for elaboration.
How was depth of processing tested with pictures of faces?
Subjects shown many photos faces, asked to make judgments about either the width of the nose or the honesty of the person, asked later to identify the faces they had seen earlier. They were not told that they would be asked.
What were the results of depth of processing tested with pictures of faces?
Subjects correctly recognized more faces that were judged for honesty.
Enhancement of long-term memory by relating material to personal experiences.
Why does Self-referential effect occur?
1.The self has a rich set of cues. Allows for elaboration and distinctiveness because we have a complex network of knowledge about ourselves. 2.Instructions encourage people to see how their traits are related to one another. 3.We may rehearse material more that is related to us - elaborative rehearsal.
Encoding specificity principle
Recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context.
what has to occur for context to have an effect?
(1) type of task matters (recognition vs. recall)
(2) other learning cues should be weak (3) bigger effect on older memories;
Why do context effects exist?
It lets us easily recall information for a given situation we are in now. It's efficient and allows for survival.
general, long lasting experience.
a reaction to a specific stimulus.
The Pollyanna principle:
Pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items; we tend to remember pleasant things (not a huge effect, but seems to be real).
Loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain damage.
Loss of memory for events that have occurred after the brain damage (Memento).
How well do people with anterograde amnesia perform on explicit memory tests?
They do much worse than normal subjects
How well do people with anterograde amnesia perform on implicit memory tests?
Influenced just as much as normal subjects when doing implicit tests, so something is getting into LTM for people with anterograde amnesia.
Childhood (infantile) amnesia
Older children and adults' inability to remember events that occurred in their lives prior to the age of 2-3 years old.
What is autobiographical memory?
Memory for events and topics related to oneself. (accurate for major details, not so for incidental details, memories can be constructed at time of retrieval, most recent experiences are recalled, older people tend to recall their adolescence and early adulthood, transitional firsts are recalled, people keep a running story of themselves)
Memory for a situation in which you first learned a very surprising and emotionally-arousing event.
What are the 6 incidental details usually recalled in flashbulb memory?:
1.The place you first heard the news. 2.The ongoing event interrupted.3. The person who gave you the news. 4.Own feelings. 5.The emotions of others. 6.The aftermath.
The view that Flashbulb memories are different from other memories
1.You remember the details not remembered with other types of memories. 2.Animal studies show stress hormones are related to better memory; within limits.
The view that Flashbulb memories ARE like other memories
1.Surprising and emotional memories are more likely to be repeated and elaborated on. 2.Strengthens the memory and allows for changes in the memory- just like other memories.
We tend to exaggerate the consistency between our past and present feelings and beliefs.
Trying to identify the origin of our memories and beliefs.
How valid is Eyewitness testimony usually?
Major details from memory are fairly accurate, smaller details are often mistaken, mistakes are made.
What is the misinformation effect?
People view and event, afterwards they are given misleading information about the event, later recall misleading information about the event rather than what they actually saw.
Trouble recalling old material because recently learned material interferes.
These memories of abuse were forgotten, then recovered; memories of real events.
Many recovered memories are mistaken. They are constructed stories about memories that never occurred.
What evidence supports the false memory perspective?
1.The potential for memory errors is high. 2.Therapists specializing in recovered memories often inadvertently suggest that a repressed memory might exist. 3.Real life implanted memories do occur
What evidence supports the recovered memory perspective?
1.Some people whose hospital records show were treated for sexual assault as children don't recall the assault as adults. 2.Lab results may not apply to real life.
What did Loftus's "Bugs Bunny at Disneyland" research demonstrate?
Demonstrated false-memory perspective
What is Loftus's "Lost in the Mall" study?
Subjects read booklets with four stories about their lives: 3 real, 1 made up (lost in the mall as a child); plausible details from relatives. 1-2 weeks later the subjects were interviewed, and then interviewed again 2 weeks later. 68% of the true events were recalled, and 29% of the made up events remembered.
What did Loftus's "Lost in the Mall" study demonstrate?
What is general knowledge?
Our background knowledge that helps us get along in life; stored for use by cognitive processes
What is general knowledge divided into?
(1) Semantic knowledge. (2) Schemas; Semantic memory:
What is general knowledge include?
(1) matters of fact. (2) concepts;
Classes of objects that belong together.
Mental representation of a category- what is in a person's head.
What is the function of concepts?
They help us make sense of the world.
How does Feature comparison model work?
1.Concepts are stored in memory according to a list of features. 2.The features of an object are compared with the features of a category. 3.People decide whether the two match.
2 types of features in the Feature comparison model?
Defining features: attributes necessary to the meaning of an item. Characteristic features.
What are the 2 stages of feature comparison?
1.Compare all features, Both defining and characteristic features.3 possible outcomes. i.2 share many features - easy decision, no need for second step. ii.2 share few features - easy decision, no need for second step. iii.2 share some features - difficult decisions, need step two.
2.Compare the defining features of the object and the category. Should result in a yes or no since this defines the concept.Takes longer than an easy decision because it requires 2 steps instead of 1.
Sentence verification technique
Subjects see simple sentences and must consult their stored semantic knowledge to determine if the sentences are true or false.
The typicality effect:
People reach decisions faster when an item is a typical member of a category, rather than an unusual member.
What are the problems with the feature comparison model?
1.Few concepts in real life have necessary features. 2.Model assumes defining features are independent of one another, but often they are not.
A person decides whether an item belongs to a category by comparing the item to a prototype.
The idealized item that is most typical of a category.
The degree to which members of a category are prototypical.
No single attribute is shared by all examples of a concept; however, each example has at least one attribute in common with some other example of the concept.
How was the prototype approach demonstrated with the Identikit-face study
Subjects were shown composite faces made using identikit.2) Each shared features with a prototype that is never shown to the subjects. 3) Later, given recognition test and asked how confident of their answers.4) Subjects did well with one exception. All identified prototype face as seen before and identified it with the most confidence.
What are the advantages to the prototype approach?
a) Avoids defining categories by essential characteristics. b) Accounts for developing categories from loosely structured resemblances (family resemblances). c) Shows how we can store a vast amount of information into a single prototype.
What are the problems with the prototype approach?
a) Sometimes a prototype is not the most typical example of a category.b) We often do store a vast amount of specific information.c) Categories are treated as fuzzy by the prototype approach, but categories are often fuzzy.
People first learn some specific examples of a concept, and then classify a new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles those specific examples.
What is an exemplar?
Specific examples of a concept stored in memory; real examples.
What are the advantages of the exemplar approach?
1) Avoids the problems of necessary features.2) Don't have to devise a prototype.3) Can explain why we can categorize unusual examples.
What are the problems with the exemplar approach?
1) Explaining why we store some examples an not others.2) Exemplars for large categories may be unwieldy.
What is a network model?
a net-like organization of concepts in memory with many interconnections; meaning of a work or concept is determined by connections.
What are nodes?
location in the network
Collins and Loftus model:
1) Each concept is linked by a node.2) Nodes are connected by links
connects a particular node with another concept node.
spreading activation (spring activation?)
When a node is activated by the name of a concept, activation spreads through links to other nodes
How does the Collins and Loftus model explain sentence verification?
How does the Collins and Loftus model explain individual differences
How does the Collins and Loftus model explain seemingly unusual connections in memory?
How does the Collins and Loftus model explain mistakes in memory?
generally mistakes are made with older/less used memories. and the network model using the nodes and spreading and stuff, takes longer to reach more remote nodes.
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP, connectionism, neural network) approach:
takes into account workings of neurons
What is a spontaneous generalization
drawing inferences about general information based on individual cases.
What are the advantages of the PDP approach
a) Takes into account the workings of neurons.b) Can use both bottom-up and top-down processes.c) Can explain how we draw generalizations
What is a schema
generalized knowledge about a situation or an event based on experience and used to facilitate perception, thinking, and to interpret new information.
A simple, well structured, sequence of events associated with a highly familiar activity; A type of schema.
integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer, and from long-term memory. plays role in focusing attention, planning strategies, and coordinating behavior.
relatively new component. serves as a temporary storehouse where we can gather and combine information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory.
4 parts to working memory
1. phonological loop. 2. visuospatial sketchpad. 3. central executive. 4. Episodic buffer
Which hemisphere is associated with the phonological loop?
Which hemisphere is associated with the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Which part of the brain is most associated with the central executive?
Which part of working memory is most involved with stimulus-independent thoughts (daydreaming)? Evidence?
Central Executive. Random number generator.
recall material more accurately if it is congruent with your mood.
you may remember more material if your mood at the time of retrieval matches your mood at the time of encoding.
explicit memory task
implicit memory task
word completion and repetition.
repetition priming task?
recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll thin of this particular word when you are given a cue that could evoke many other different words.
What 4 factors have been found to influence eyewitness testimony?
1. delay between event and testimony. 2. errors are more likely if the misinformation is plausible. 3. errors are more likely if there is social pressure. 4. eyewitnesses given positive feedback - "okay".
What is the constructivist approach to memory?
argues we construct knowledge by integrating what we know, so our understanding of an event makes sense.
What is the Rey-Ostereith complex figure test?
its an assessment where the participants have to reproduce a line drawing after looking at it for 2 minutes from memory. it tests the visuospatial abilities, and visual working memory, etc.