Chapter 14

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Principals of Disease and Epidemiology

A commensal bacterium

May be an opportunistic pathogen

Which of the following statements is true?
A. Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together
B. Members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live without each other
C. A parasite is not in symbiosis with its host
D. Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together and benefiting from each other
E. At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship

Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together

A nonsocomial infection is

Acquired during the course of hospitalization

The major significance of Koch's work was that

Microorganisms cause disease

Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because

Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms

Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?

Botulism

Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission

Doesn't involve specific diseases

Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A. Endemic - a disease that is constantly present in a population
B. Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time
C. Pandemic - a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time
D. Sporadic - a disease that affects a population occasionally
E. Incidence - number of new cases of a disease

Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specific time

Which of these infections can cause septicemia?

Focal infection

Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?

Systemic infection

Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?

Septicemia

Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?

Gram-negative cell walls

Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota

Are present for a relatively short time

Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is false?

The patient was infected before hospitalization

One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in

Increased suseptibility to disease

Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?

All of the above can be reservoirs of infection

Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease?

Tetanus

Which of the following is a fomite?

A hypodermic needle

Which of the following statements about biological transmission is false?

Houseflies are an important vector

Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A. Acute - a short-lasting primary infections
B. Inapparent - infection characteristic of a carrier state
C. Chronic - a disease that develops slowly and lasts for months
D. Primary infection - an initial illness
E. Secondary infection - a long lasting disease

Secondary infection - a long lasting illness

Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms

Are changes felt by the patient

The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

Epidemiology

Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?

D
Constant (dotted line along bottom)

Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following EXCEPT

Microbes trying to cause disease

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A. Malaria - vector
B. Salmonellosis - vehicle transmission
C. Syphilis - direct contact
D. Influenza - droplet infection
E. All of the above are correctly matched

All of the above are correctly matched

Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?

All of the above

In Figure 14.2, what is the endemic level of rotavirus infections?

Approximately 10%

A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of

Vehicle transmission

Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of

Droplet transmission

A sexually transmitted disease is an example of

Direct contact

Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef is an example of

Vehicle transmission

A needlestick is an example of

Fomite

Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine is an example of

Vehicle transmission

Plague transmitted by a flea is an example of

Vector

The most likely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague between humans is

Droplet transmission

Situation 14.1 is an example of

A zoonosis

In Situation 14.1, the etiologic agent of the disease is

Coxiella burnetti

In Situation 14.1, the method of transmission of this disease was

Vehicle

Which one of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?

Bacteria causing disease

The yeast Candida alicans does not normally cause disease because of

Antagonistic bacteria

Haemophilus bacteria require heme protein produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. This is an example of

Synergism

Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?

All of the above are zoonoses

Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a

Nosocomial infection

The graph in Figure 14..3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates

An epidemic level

Which one of the following statements is false?
A. Antimicrobial therapy for hemodialysis-associated infections increases antibiotic resistance
B. S. aureus is differentiated from other mannitol + cocci by the coagulase test
C. The M in MRSA stands for mannitol
D. USA100 accounts for most hospital-acquired MRSA
E. USA300 accounts for most community-acquired MRSA

The M in MRSA stands for mannitol

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