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abstinence

refraining from use of a chemical substance

addiction

state of chronic or recurrent intoxication characterized by psychological and physical dependence, including tolerance

blackout

amnesic episode i.e., period of time in which an individual is conscious and appears to behave normally, but for which the individual has no recollection (occurs with use of alcohol)

confabulation

behavioral response to memory loss in which the client "makes up" imaginary events and inappropriate words to fill in memory gaps

crashing

hunger and rebound depression which occurs after the initial pleasurable experience with amphetamines and suicidal ideation is also present)

detoxification

treatment modality used to decrease the symptoms of withdrawal from a chemical substance (e.g. alcohol or methadone detoxification) and gradually return the individual to a chemical substance free state

dual diagnosis

diagnosis of an individual with two disorders on Axis I of the DSM IV - a mental illness diagnosis and a substance abuse diagnosis (also known as MICA or mentally ill chemical abuser)

flashback

reoccurrence of visual distortions and/or intense emotional experiences similar to those occurring during a trip

intoxication

state achieved after ingestion of a chemical substance in sufficient quantities to produce vital signs and mental status changes

loss of control

(in alcoholism) the individual cannot control the amount of alcohol use on any given occasion, although s/he is not driven to drink (in other chemical substance use) the inability to stop using the drug

mainlining

taking chemical substances intravenously (e.g. narcotics or amphetamines may be injected)

narcotic (opiate) withdrawal syndrome

occurs when a physically dependent individual is deprived of the opioid drug tolerance

tolerance

state occurring when metabolic changes in tissue response to a chemical substance are diminished resulting in the need to increase the amount of drug used in order to obtain the desired effect. Long-term ,excessive tissue damage may eventually cause an inverse (opposite) effect where decreased amounts of the drug are needed to achieve

trip

unpredictable experience (may be good or bad) that occurs when a hallucinogen is taken

withdrawal

progressive predictable set of symptoms occurring when a drug is discontinued or a dose is reduced

withdrawal delirium

(formerly called delirium tremens) serious, potentially life threatening form of alcohol withdrawal

Use: Alcohol

Symptoms : Relaxation, loss of inhibitions, lack of concentration, drowsiness, slurred speech,sleep

Use: Barbiturates and nonbarbirurates)

Symptoms : Relaxation, loss of inhibitions, lack of concentration, drowsiness, slurred speech, sleep

Drug Classifications: CNS Stimulants

Amphetimines,Cocaine,Opiods,Hallucinigens,Cannabinols

Use: Amphetamines and related drugs

Symptoms : Hyperactivity, agitation, euphoria, insomnia, loss of appetite, DIALATED PUPILS,ELEVATED BP & PULSE

Use: Cocaine

Symptoms :Euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, talkativeness, increased pulse, DIALATED PUPILS, rhinitis, ELEVATED BP & PULSE, RISK FOR CARDIAC ARREST,DYSRHYTHMIAS

Use: Opioids

Symptoms : Euphoria, lethargy, drowsiness, lack of motivation, CONSTRICTED PUPILS

Use: Hallucinogens

Symptoms : FLASHBACKS, Visual hallucinations, disorientation, confusion, paranoid delusions, euphoria, anxiety, panic, increased pulse

Use:Cannabinols

Symptoms: Relaxation, talkativeness, lowered inhibitions, euphoria, mood swings

Therapeutic Use: Alcohol

Antidote for methanol consumption; ingredient in many pharmacological concentrates

Therapeutic Use: barbiturates and nonbarbirurates

Relief from anxiety and insomnia; as anticonvulsants and anesthetics

Therapeutic uses: Amphetamines and related drugs

Management of narcolepsy, hyperkinesia, and weight control

Therapeutic uses: Cocaine, heroin

no prescribed uses

Therapeutic uses: Opioids

As analgesics,antidiarrheals,and antitussives;in methadone substitution therapy

Therapeutic uses: Hallucinogens

LSD has been proposed in the treatment of chronic alcoholism and in the reduction of intractable pain.

Therapeutic uses: Cannabinols

Relief of nausea and vomiting associated with antineoplastic chemotherapy and to reduce eye pressure in glaucoma.

Overdose : Alcohol

OD can cause: Shallow respirations; cold clammy skin; weak, rapid pulse; coma; possible death, N/V

Overdose: barbiturates and nonbarbirurates

OD can cause:Anxiety, fever, agitation, hallucinations, disorientation, tremors,deliriurn, convulsions, possible death

Overdose : Amphetamines and related drugs

OD can cause:Cardiac arrhythmias, headache, convulsions, hypertension, rapid heart rate, coma, possible death

Overdose: Cocaine

OD can cause:Hallucinations, convulsions, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, coma, cardiac arrest, possible death

Overdose: Opioids

OD can cause:Shallow breathing, slowed pulse, clammy skin, pulmonary edema, respiratory arrest, convulsions, coma,possible death

Overdose: Hallucinogens

OD can cause:Agitation, extreme hyperactivity, violence, hallucinations, psychosis, convulsions, possible death

Overdose: Cannabinols

OD can cause:Fatigue, paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, possible psychosis

Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol, beer, gin, rum, vodka, bourbon, whiskey, liqueurs, wine, brandy, sherry, champagne

Other (barbiturates and nonbarbirurates)

Seconal, nembutal, Amytal, Valium Librium, Noctec, Miltown

Amphetamines and related drugs

Dexedrine, Didrex, Tenuate, Prelu2, Ritalin, Focalin, Meridia, Provigil

Cocaine

Cocaine hydrochloride

Opioids

Heroin, Morphine, Codeine,,Dilaudid, Demerol, Dolophine,Percodan,Talwin,Opium

Hallucinogens

LSD,PCP,Mesaline,DMT,STp,DOM,MDN, LA, Ketamine

Cannabinols

Cannabis

Intoxication: Alcohol

Intoxication can cause: Aggressiveness, impaired judgment, impaired attention, irritability, euphoria, depression, emotional lability, slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, nystagmus, flushed face

Intoxication: Amphetamines and related substances

Intoxication can cause:Fighting, grandiosity, hyper vigilance, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, tachycardia,DIALATED PUPILS, elevated blood pressure, perspiration or chills, nausea and vomiting

Intoxication: Cannabis

Intoxication can cause:Euphoria, anxiety, suspicious ness, sensation of slowed time, impaired judgment, social withdrawal, tachycardia, conjunctival redness, increased appetite, hallucinations

Intoxication: Cocaine

Intoxication can cause:Euphoria, fighting, grandiosity, hypervigilance, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, PUPILLARY DIALATION, perspiration or chills, nausea/vomiting, hallucinations, delirium

Intoxication: Inhalants

Intoxication can cause:Belligerence, assaultiveness, apathy, impaired judgment, dizziness, nysngmus, slurred speech, unsteady gait, lethargy, depressed reflexes, tremor, blurred vision, stupor or coma, euphoria, irritation around eyes, throat, and nose

Intoxication: Opioids

Intoxication can cause:Euphoria, lethargy, somnolence, apathy, dysphoria, impaired judgment, PUPILLARY CONSTRICTION, drowsiness, slurred speech, constipation, nausea, decreased respiratory rate and blood pressure

Intoxication: Phencyclidine and related substances

Intoxication can cause:Intoxication: Belligerence, assaultiveness, impulsiveness, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, nysngmus, increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished pain response, ataxia, dysarthria, muscle rigidity, seizures, hyperacusis, delirium

Intoxication: Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics

Intoxication can cause:Disinhibition of sexual or aggressive impulses, mood lability, impaired judgment, slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, impairment in attention or memory, disorientation, confusion

Withdrawal: Alcohol

Withdrawal from can cause: SEIZURES, tremors, nausea/vomiting, malaise, weakness, tachycardia, sweating, elevated blood pressure, anxiety, depressed mood, irritability, hallucinations, headache, insomnia

Withdrawal: Amphetamines and related substances

Withdrawal from can cause:SEIZURES, anxiety, depressed mood, irritability, craving for the substance, fatigue, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, paranoid and suicidal ideation

Withdrawal:Cannabis

Withdrawal from can cause:Restlessness, irritability, insomnia, loss of appetite

Withdrawal: Cocaine

Withdrawal from can cause:Depression, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, paranoid or suicidal ideation, apathy, social withdrawal

Withdrawal: Opioids

Withdrawal from can cause:Craving for the drug, nausea/vomiting, muscle aches, lacrimation or rhinorrhea, PUPILARY DILATION, piloerection or sweating, diarrhea, yawning, fever, insomnia

Withdrawal: Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics

Withdrawal from can cause:Nausea/vomiting, malaise, weakness, tachycardia, sweating, anxiety, irritability, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, insomnia, SEIZURES

Withdrawal Comments:Alcohol

Withdrawal begins within 4-6 hr after last drink. May progress to "delirium tremens" on 2nd or 3rd day. Use of Lihrium or Serax is common for substitution therapy

Withdrawal Comments: Amphetamines and related substances

Withdrawal symptoms usually peak within 2-4 days, although depression and irritability may persist for months. Antidepressants may be used

Intoxication Comments: Cannabis

Intoxication ccurs immediately and lasts about 3 hours. Oral ingestion is more slowly absorbed and has longer lasting effects

Overdose comments: Cocaine

Large doses of the drug can result in convulsions or death from CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS or respiratory paralysis.

Intoxication Comments: Inhalants

Intoxication : occurs within 5 minutes; symptoms last 60-90 min. Large doses can result in death from central nervous system depression or cardiac arrhythmia.

Intoxication Comments: Phencyclidine and related substances

Delirium can occur within 24 hours after use of , or may occur up to a week following recovery from an overdose of the drug

Withdrawl comments: Sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics

May progress to delirium, usually within 1 week of last use. Long-acting forms of the drug may he used in withdrawal substitution therapy

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