Muscles get ___ when they contract.
_____ holds bones together.
____ connect muscles to bones.
A bone without minerals is _______
very soft and can bend
Name 3 places we have cartilage in our bodies.
in our ribs, ears, and nose
What is the strongest bone in our skeleton?
How many separate muscles are in the body?
An example of a fixed joint is the ____ because it doesn't move.
Bones are made of these three things:
periosteum- outer layer, compact-middle, cancellus- spongy inside
When you are born, you have ____ bones in your body.
What happens to your bones when your grow older?
they fuse together
Birds have ____ bones. Why?
hollow- they need to be light enough to fly
It takes ___ muscles to smile.
It takes ____ muscles to frown.
Our vertebrae are hollow to protect the ____ ______.
________/_________ ______ is like oil to make our joints move smoothly.
The word "skeleton" in Greek means ___
Our skeleton/bones are made up of these three things:
1/3 water, minerals, blood/nerves
You have more than ____ muscles in your body.
There are 3 types of muscles. They are:
skeletal (bones), cardiac (heart), smooth (in walls of blood vessels & organs)
The outer layer of a bone is the ___
peri- meaning around and osteo meaning bone
The strong layer in the bone is the ______ bone.
compact- it has to be cut with a saw and blood vessels and nerves run through this layer
The inner layer of the bone is the ____ bone.
spongy (canellous)- looks like a sponge and is where bone marrow is
What are the 3 different types of joints?
fixed (don't move), hinge (moves bones through one plane-arm/leg) and ball & socket (movement in several directions- shoulder/hip)
What are the 2 types of muscle filaments?
myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
When a nerve signals a skeletal muscle to contract, ____ is released inside the muscle filaments. This causes attachments to vorm between myosis and actin.
This theory states that the actin filaments move toward one another during contraction. The myosin filaments do not move. This shortens the muscle thus causing it to contract.
Sliding Filament Theory
Muscle strength does NOT depend on the number of fibers in the muscles. This number is fixed before you are ___.
Muscle _____ depends on the thickness of fibers and how many of them contract at one time.
Thicker muscle fibers are stronger and contribute to ____ ______.
Regular exercise stresses muscle fibers slightly and to compensate for this added workload, the fibers _____ in size.
The digestive system does these three things:
1) takes in food, 2) breaks down foods, 3) absorbs the broken down food into the bloodstream which delivers it to your tissues
This takes place in the mouth and breaks food into smaller pieces which increase the surface area for enzymes to work on.
chewing also know as "mechanical" digestion
This is in the mouth and is slimy/slippery and helps break down food once chewed.
What muscle contracts tomove food through the digestive track?
How long does it take to move food from the mouth to the stomach?
The ___ structure is very muscular. It contracts to mix food.
The stomach is lined with millions of glands that secrete HCl (acidic) and Pepsin (enzyme). This is called "___" digestion.
The ____ intestine is about ___ meters long and is a muscular ____.
6 meters, tube
The small intestine is called SMALL because of it's small _____.
The first 25cm of the small intestine is called the ___. This is where the enzymes from the pancreas and liver are collected.
Food stays in the small intestine for __ - __ hours.
Food is moved along the intestine by the peristalsis while ____ are absorbed into the blood stream.
The ___ secretes enzymes that break down carbs, proteins, and fats.
The ___ produces bile which breaks fats into droplets.
Bile is stored in the ____ _____.
The large intestine is also known as the ___.
The large intestine only contains things that can't be digested. This is called ___.
How long and wide are the large intestine?
1.5 meters long and 6.5 cm wide
What is absorbed in the large intestine?
water is absorbed
What lives in the large intestine to further break down matter?
How long does waste stay in the large intestine before the feces reaches the anus?
Approximately how long does it take to totally digest food (from mouth to anus)?