Nutrition Final

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If an individual's intake of a nutrient is less than the RDA, the individual...

May or may not be deficient in that nutrient

Currently in the US which of the following is the greatest nutritionally related problem?

obesity

Which organelle is involved in converting the energy from the energy yielding nutrients into a form the cell can use?

mitochondria

Which of the following diseases or conditions is not related to poor nutrients and a sedentary lifestyle?

Sickle cell anemia

Which of the following nutrients provides the most calories per gram?

fats

Which characteristic of a healthy diet ensures that we obtain enough of the nutrients we need?

adequacy

When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is

The second most abundant ingredient by weight

Which characteristic of a healthy diet ensures that we don't get too much of a specific nutrient?

moderation

Which term describes failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs?

Undernutrition

The Food and Nutrition Board has set recommendations for a range of percent calories that should be met by the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. What is the range recommended for carbohydrates?

45-65%

The recommendations for someone eating a 2000 calorie a day diet is 6 oz. eq of grains. Which of the following DOES NOT constitute 1 oz. eq?

1 cup of cooked cereal

Which of the following are NOT a constituent of saliva?

intrinsic factor

Which of the following is NOT part of the digestive tract?

liver

The exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products takes place within arteries and veins. True or False?

False

When you go to the doctor, typically, they will measure your height and weight. This is an example of what assessment?

Anthropometric

Which of the following phytochemical are rich in colored (orange, red, yellow) vegetables?

Caroteniods

Bone, Cartilage, muscle, and nerves are considered types of

tissues

In which of the following organs is bile made, which aids in digestion of fats?

liver

Which hormone causes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas, which neutralizes the acid entering the small intestine from the stomach?

Secretin

Foods which high nutrient density offer the ____ nutrients for the ____ calories.

most, least

Which of the following functions are provided by nutrients?

Provide the body with energy
Help maintain and repair the body
Acts as building blocks of the body

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?

Epiglottis

Eating a piece of cake after a big dinner is an example of the psychological drive to eat. The term given to the psychological drive to eat it....

Appetite

Which of the following prevents gastric juices from entering the esophagus?

Esophageal Sphincter

Coordinated waves of muscular contraction, followed by muscles relaxation is called a _______. It is used to move food along the gastrointestinal tract.

peristaltic contraction

In which of the following organs are villi found; finger like projections that increase the surface area of the organ?

small intestine

Suppose a serving a fruit juice A has 100% of the RDA for vitamin C and 200 calories, while a serving of juice B has 5% of the RDA for vitamin C and 50 calories. Which fruit juice has the highest nutrient density for vitamin C?

Juice B

According to the Dietary Guidelines, the food groups to encourage are...

Fruits, Vegetables, low fat milk, whole grains

Which of the following upon digestion, is NOT normally taken up directly into the bloodstream?

Fats

Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?

A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups

Where are most of the digestive enzymes produced?

Pancreas and small intestine

The food label term "fat free" means that...

The food item contains less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving

Which of the following tend to increase the energy density of a food item?

Increasing the amount of fat in the food

The acronym RDA stands for

Recommended Dietary Allowance

Which of the following meals contain all the food groups (except oil)

Re fried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla, orange and soft drink.

To a nutritionist the term "essential" means something

The body cant make or make in sufficient quantities

Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconscious in her home. A dietician conduct a nutritional assessment nothing the general appearance of Mrs. Mitchell's skin, eye, and tongue. What part of the assessment is it?

Clinical

Suppose a serving of a food item is 90 calories. You lean from the food label that 50% of the calories were derived from fat. How many grams of fat are in a serving of the food item?

5

To which organ does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?

lungs

The food grouping guidelines most recently released from the US government are called

MyPyramid.....MyPlate?

During states of under nutrition, what typically develops first?

biochemical changes

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?

protects stomach cells from gastric juice

Blood leaving the small intestine goes by way of a vein to the

liver

Which of the following nutrients is NOT organic?

minerals

Which of the following is a description of chyme?

A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestine

Malnutrition only results from long term deficiencies of nutrients like protein, vitamins, and minerals

False

Suppose a food item contains 5 grams of carbs, 10grams of protein, 10 grams of fats, and 2 milligrams of vitamins. How many calories are in the food item?

150 calories

Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning guidelines for a healthy diet?

You should not eat foods with a low nutrient density ("junk" foods)

Which organ system is involved in eliminating water soluble waste from the body?

urinary system

Which of the following are functions of the kidney?

Formation of urine
Production of red blood cells
formation of activity vitamin D

Structurally, amylase could be described as...

long, straight glucose chain

which source of stored body energy can be used to form glucose that can be used by the brain during times of fasting?

liver glycogen

The main dietary factor associated with high blood cholesterol is..

high saturated fat intake

Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?

best source of energy for the brain

What is the major monsaccharide found in the body?

glucose

The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight is called

photosynthesis

BHA and BHT are examples of

antioxidants

Which of the following characteristics is true of the artificial fat, olestra

it passes through the small intestine unabsorbed

Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made up of two amino acids, aspartame and phenylalanine. As a result, people with PKU, who cannot metabolize phenylalanine, need to be aware of which products contain this sweetener?

aspartame

Intestinal cell package triglycerides into a lipoprotein called

chylomicron

All other things being equal, what effect does inc your blood HDL conc have on your risk of developing atherosclerosis?

It decreases the risk

Which type of diabetes is associated with obesity, and results from the body becoming resistant to the effects of insulin?

type 2

The large intestine is a major site of _____ absorption?

water

Viscous (soluble) fibers can....

a. lower blood cholesterol levels
b. slow the absorption of glucose
c. increase stool size significantly

As a product of lipid digestion, glycerol and short-chained fatty acids are absorbed...

by the capillaries of the small intestine

What enzyme is responsible for the digestion of starches in the small intestine?

pancreatic amylase

Which of the following hormones is released in response to high blood glucose concentration, like you would find after a meal, which helps lower glucose concentrates?

insulin

Which of the following families of fatty acids are essential?

omega-3 & omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids

The World Health Organization recommends limiting added sugar intake to ____ percent of our total calories.

10

Which of the following food groups contains on average 18 grams of carbs per serving, consisting of a mixture of simple and complex carbs?

fruits

Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?

glucagon

Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega- 3 fatty acids?

salmon

Glycogen is most similar in structure to which of the following?

amylopectin

For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?

brain

Which of the following is not true of dietary fibers?

they are absorbed in the large intestine

The term "simple carb" refers to

a. disaccharides
b. polysaccharides
c. monosaccharides

major sources of dietary fructose include...

fruits and honey

Phosoholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways?

A compound containing phosphorus replaces one fatty acid

Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood?

liver

Dietary fiber may play a role in the prevention of which kind of cancer?

colon

Which of the following foods does not contain cholesterol?

peanuts

Most of the maltose in the small intestines comes from the...

digestion of starches

Diabetes increases the risk of developing which of the following conditions?

a. kidney disease
b. cardio disease
c. blindness in adulthood

The shorter the chain-length of the fatty acids in triglyceride, the more likely it is being ____ at room temp. The lower the degree of saturation of the fatty acids in triglyceride, the more likely it is of being ____ at room temp.

liquid, liquid

Which of the following is a major source of lactose?

skim milk

What is the fate of the majority of cholesterol in bile after it is released into the small intestine?

It is reabsorbed by the small intestine and taken to the liver

What is the reason to saturate a polyunsaturated fatty acid?

a. to make it healthier
b. to make the lipid more solid
c. increase the shelf-life of foods

When a person eats an excess of carbs, the liver can use that excess to make fats. These fats are packaged into a lipoprotein and it is released into the blood. What is the name of this lipoprotein made by the liver?

VLDL

Which of the following hormones causes the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose and the synthesis of glucose by the liver from noncarb precursors

glucagon

The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of ....

carbs consumed

Which of the following is not a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

coconut oil

Which of the following is not a monosaccaride?

lactose

Which of the following is not a nonfermentable (insoluble) fiber?

gum

What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intesinte?

they pass into the colon an dare fermented by bacteria

What is the name of the lipoprotein that carries cholesterol from the liver to the tissues of the body?

LDL

Which of the following has the most starch?

kidney beans

Besides providing the body with energy, a sufficient amount of carbs consumption is required to....

a. prevent ketosis
b. prevent insulin resistance
c. lessen the breakdown of body proteins

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