The Great War
Known as World War I and the War to End All Wars: a global military conflict that embroiled most of the world's great powers from 1914 to 1919.
World War I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
A situation after the war where the Ottoman Empire, almost as a type of revenge, attempted to wipe out the entire Armenian people, murdering hundreds of thousands that they suspected of disloyalty. These murders would continue well into the 1920s.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Nov. 1917 when Lenin and Bolshevik followers over threw provisional government and took over the Russian government
using this concept, the Bolshevik leaders claimed that they understood the interests of the working people better than they did themselves. Over time, this philosophy was used to rationalize virtually all actions of the Communist Party and the state it dominated.
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Influenza Pandemic of 1918
Disease that killed more than 20 million people. the first documented outbreak occurred in Spain in late 1918.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Germany, Italy, Japan
Great Britain, France, Russia
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
German city ferociously firebombed by the Allies from February 13 to 15, 1945
codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets.
Military takeover of Manchuria by the Japanese. Was not supported by the civilian government, which fell apart in response. Condemned by the newly formed League of Nations,
women from Japanese colonies & occupied territories (mainly from Korea & China) forced to serve in military brothels ("comfort houses" / "consolation centers") during WWII; many were war casualties; either killed or had to live w/ deep shame after war
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
(1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin's policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
Nations with enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events in many areas around the globe
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
Stalin's attempt to block access to Berlin. Truman sent a huge airlift to Berlin with food, fuel, and equipment to stock the City with supplies.
soviet-controlled area of Germany. was communist
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Cuban revolutionary; overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1958; initiated series of reforms to establish Socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on USSR.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of The Second Sex. She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
Author, lecturer, and leading feminist who founded the National Organization for Women--wrote The Feminine Mystique that inspired growth of the feminist movement.
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
de Gaulle, Charles
The french general who led the free french movement that opposed the Germans during their occupation of France during world war II
The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Hungary against Russia Gain independence from Russia *A new Hungarian government in 1956 announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of mainland China in the South China Sea
the gradual worsening of relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War.
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
(1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
(1943- ) Polish labor union leader, Nobel laureate, and President of Poland from 1990 to 1995. He was instrumental in the collapse of communism in Poland and throughout Eastern Europe through the work of the labor union Solidarity.
A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.
Fall of Berlin Wall
1989 - Beginning of the fall of communism and the Soviet Union - symbolized the failure of communism and massive socialism
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
Fall of USSR
The Soviet Union's dissolution into independent nations. Several Soviet Socialist Republics began resisting central control, and increasing democratization led to a weakening of the central government. The Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin seized power in the aftermath of a failed coup that had attempted to topple reform-minded Gorbachev.
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
(1889-1964) Indian nationalist leader and the first prime minister of independent India from 1947 to 1964. Along with Mohandas Gandhi, he was instrumental in freeing India from Britain's control.
people (or countries) who are not aligned with other people (or countries) in a pact or treaty
Indonesian statesman who obtained the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands in 1949 and served as president until ousted by Suharto in a coup d'etat (1901-1970)
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
(1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970. He was responsible for nationalizing the Suez Canal, and was an important leader to the Arab world. He was often at odds with the West and Israel.
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
an ideological position that holds Black culture to be independent and valid on its own terms
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues
A sescret society made up of mostly Kikuyu farmers in Kenya, who scared away the British, which is one of the ways in which Kenya gained its independence
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years
a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Tiananmen Square protests
the protests of the leaders of the democracy movement that marched up to Tiananmen Square to present their written requests to those in power, but they were ignored and brutally suppressed
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi); installed as a figurehead prime minister by the Congress Party bosses in 1966; a strong-willed and astute politician, she soon became the central figure in India politics, a position she maintained through the 1970s and passed on to her sons.
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
a political group that claims to represent all Palestinians and to be working toward gaining an independent Palestinian nation
a nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in the lands from the Arabian peninsula from North Africa
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. (p. 859)
(1937- ) President of Iraq since 1979. He has led his control into two devastating wars, one against Iran in 1980 to 1988, and the Persian Gulf War in 1990 - 1991 which started as a result of his invading Kuwait.
The war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
a movement within the Catholic church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed, with a focus on fighting injustice
United Fruit Company
company in which many U.S. citizens hold stocks in, controlled half the land in Guatemala and provided many jobs...when the government of Guatemala wanted to take the land, the U.S. intervened and over threw the government
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Contras and Sandinistas
The U.S. sold weapons to Iran and used the money to fight Sandinista Communists in Nicaragua. President Reagan supported the Contras.
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
(1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
de Klerk, F.W.
White South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, he successfully dismantled the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.
international trade free of government interference
growth to a global or worldwide scale
a United Nations agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
Enterprise that manages production in more than one country
Massive postwar economic expansion, slowed in 1990s: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan imitate Japanes strategies
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.
Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
the gases in the atmosphere that trap and radiate heat; water vapor, co2, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), methane, nitrous oxide
Virus that destroys the immune system that should protect the body from diseases. The disease is passed from person to person through sexual acts, blood transfusions, used hypodermic needles, or from mother to child during birth.
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
an international organization that cares for the sick or wounded or homeless in wartime
a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
UN Declaration of Human Rights
Open borders; everyone has a right to go wherever they want to go; natural human right --> freedom
(1995) created by Dr. Jonas Salk. worked by introducing killed or weak pieces of the virus to allow body to develop antibodies thus preventing polio
Branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory
Big Bang Theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Western section of the country of Sudan which has suffered civil war since 2003 and has had over 500,000 people killed and 21/2 million people displaced from their homes
Tensions between the two major ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu, exploded into violence. In 1994 an estimated 200,000 or more people, mainly Tutsi, had died in massacres. An estimated 2 million Tutsi and Hutu fled to refugee camps in neighboring Zaire and other countries.
Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
British secret operative 007 in novels by Ian Fleming
Doctors without Borders
non-governmental organization that helps people in war-torn regions and aids developing countries facing endemic disease.
a religious sect founded in the United States in 1966
a spiritual movement that began in China in the latter half of the 20th century and is based on Buddhist and Taoist teachings and practices
the film industry of India
a style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion.