legally adding land area to a city in the US
It is the largest land mass in the world not part of a sovereign state. Territorial claims are suspended on Antartica.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
two types; exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between US and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the US-Canada Border.
Conflicts over the location, size, and extent of borders between nations. There is conflict over where exactly the border is between the U.S. and Mexico, especially along the Rio Grande because the river has changed course and moved, and it is the traditional border.
disputes over the legal language of a boundary agreement
Disputes that arise when the definition of the border is not questioned but the intention of the border is, as when the border has shifted (e.g., a river shifts its course, changing the landscape).
Involve neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function
Conflict over resources that may not be divided by the border, such as natural gas reserves beneath the soil.
Certain boundaries were delimited before the present-day human landscape was developed. Eg: Border between Malaysia and Indonesia on the island of Borneo.
Boundary evolved as the cultural landscape of an area took shape
Boundary that is forcibly drawn across a unified cultural landscape
A boundary that has ceased to function but whose imprints are still evident on the cultural landscape
Phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated.
in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.
a physical environment is used as a boundary.
Ex. The four corners of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico
a natural boundary is when a physical environment is used as a boundary
Ex. France and Spain with the Pyrenees Mts.
A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide , such as language and religion.
a boundary drawn by a grid system.
Ex. Armenia and Azerbaijan.
a small neutral state between two rival powers
a seat of government