Large administrative agencies reflecting a hierarchical authority, job specialization, and rules and regulations that drive them.
characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them judicial power to interpret regulations they create.
characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them legislative powers to issue regulations.
used to describe the difficulty it takes to get answers from a bureaucratic agency.
policy that results in government control over individuals and businesses. Examples of regulatory policy include protection of the environment and consumer protection.
Presidency & the bureaucracy
Appointments with Senate confirmation, executive orders, and the power of the Office of Management and Budget to add or cut money to an agency budget
Pendleton Act 1883
set up merit as the criterion for hiring, promoting, and firing federal employees.
policy experts, media pundits, congressional staff and interest groups who regularly debate an issue (often these people receive agency appointments)
interrelationship among bureaucracies, the government, interest groups, and the public, which also establishes a pattern of relationships among an agency in the executive branch, Congress, and one or more outside clients of that agency.
Congress & the Bureaucracy
Congressional oversight of agencies (exercising budgetary controls, hearings, investigations, setting guidelines).
agencies set their own specific guidelines for a given problem or situation
Problems with implementation
conflicting goals, faulty program design, lack of financial resources, and fragmentation
translation of policy goals into rules and standard operative procedures
Independent Executive Agencies
non-cabinet departments such as NASA and the EPA
Civil Service Reform Act (1978)
law that replaced the Civil Service Commission with the Office of Personnel Management and the Merit Systems Protection Board. These agencies are responsible for enforcing existing civil service laws, coordinating the testing of applicants, setting up pay scales, and appointing people to federal jobs.
Independent regulatory agencies
agencies that are quasi legislative and quasi judicial in nature and operation. Appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, Examples include the Food and Drug Administration, Interstate Commerce Commission, Securities and Exchange Commission, National Labor Relations Board, Federal Reserve Board and Environmental Protection Agency.
Hatch Act (1939)
law that places restrictions on the kind of political activity a federal employee may participate in.
having specific responsibilities that facilitate a specific operation of the government. Examples: Tennessee Valley Authority, Amtrak, and US Postal Service
Federal Reserve Board
set monetary policy (interest rates, controlling inflation, regulate the money supply and adjust bank reserve requirements)
Division of labor
skilled workers each have a specialized function, resulting in increased productivity.